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In the ’90s came a current that tried to return to traditional cinema and break all Hollywood hegemony established by the Dogma 95.
If there is something they have in common all the artistic movements is that they serve as a reflection of what appears in the society at the time. Throughout history, there have been many different vanguards who served as an escape to show a different view to those values that prevailed. One of these trends is the Dogma 95 , which marked a turning point for everything that is conceived as a cinema.
It is undeniable that Hollywood dominates cinema . Although some admit it is somewhat bitter, the cinema is an industry that draws on their livelihood. Does not mean that a large outlay guarantee a good movie, but that success in the industry is linked to promotion that is made of this work. Having a recognized actor, invest in advertising or hire the best technicians of the moment are the elements by which the producers are betting. Regardless of whether the final product is satisfactory or not, the ingredients should be appropriate for the film to become a bestseller.
However, sometimes you can also find jewelry beyond all those conventions. In the 90s, the democratization of the means to make films there were also caused more products of independent directors, which did not need a big budget to create their works. Think of Reservoir Dogs , a film whose main plot unfolds in a unique setting.
For his first feature film, Tarantino took many features from the New Wave defended by the French in the mid-twentieth century filmmakers. Of these same values other stream will also nourish published in 1995 by Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg , the Dogma 95.
Just as François Truffaut or Jean-Luc Godard in France, Denmark also would cultivate a sense of breaking the mold established by industry Film of the moment.
The selected time to inaugurate the Dogma 95 was not chosen at random. 1995 celebrated the centenary of cinema 100 years since the Lumiere brothers effect your first screening, an occasion that was not used by Lars von Trier to read a speech on the celebration, but to inaugurate before the whole world would try to break the forefront the pillars on which Hollywood productions are based.
Thus, the Danish director happened to read what they themselves called “Dogma 95 manifesto “, a set of rules to be followed to create a work that adapts to the demands of this new way of making films.
The manifest said was intended to establish premises for combat film coming from the upper US producers . They are trying to make it clear that making a good product should not be linked to have a high budget. It also claimed real as synonymous with purity and film authenticity.
As von Trier notes in his vow of chastity, “swear that I will refrain from creating a work, because I believe that The moment is more important than the whole. ” Therefore, is not any kind of haven for fiction , what we see is what the camera captures at that time.
1) must shootings carried out on location . You can not decorate or create a “set”. If an item or object is necessary for the development of history, seek a location where objects are needed.
2) The sound can not be mixed separately from the images or vice versa (the music should not be used unless this is recorded in the same place where the scene is being shot).
3) camera will shoot in hand . Any movement or immobility because the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is, the shooting must take place where the film takes place).
4) The film must be in color . Special or artificial light is not allowed (if not enough light to shoot a particular scene, it must be removed or, strictly speaking, you can plug a simple camera to focus).
5) optical effects and filters are prohibited.
6) Movie can not have an action or surface development (can not be shown weapons or crimes may occur in the story).
7) the temporal or spatial alienation is prohibited. (This is to confirm that the film takes place here and now).
8) genre films are not accepted.
9) The format of the film should be the Academic 35mm (1. 1.85)
10) The director must not appear in the credits .
But, what came all this? As expected, would its creators the first to create products that would meet the requirements to be incorporated into the stream, such as “Celebration” by Thomas Vinterberg or “The Idiots” of Lars von Trier, which came to compete for the Palme without any results.
The film of Lars von Trier is a review about what society considered “not normal”. A group of young people begin to simulate mental disabilities for the sole purpose of achieving the objectives proposed. Thus, “making the idiot” becomes a way to escape the ordinary, a way to break the natural state by which our society is governed. For this, the Danish director experienced with real mental patients , which offered a supporting role in the film. In addition, key players also visited real psychiatric centers, all with the intention to avoid the interpretation that this should become reality.
After that, as reflected in Internet Archive reached record more than 300 works with such characteristics. However, many did not meet exactly the rules to be followed according to the manifesto. It was difficult to control a director did not open a window to alter the brightness of the scene, the current required a moral commitment and not everyone was willing to accept it.
“The manifesto Dogma 95 has become a generic formula “
Therefore, in 2002 the secretariat of the Dogma 95 decided that stream would end , which is expressed with the following statements:” The Dogma 95 manifesto has become a generic formula, which was never our intention. As a result we stop our mediation and interpretation of how to make films Dogma and close the Secretariat “
Regardless of whether we are supporters or critics of Dogma 95, at least we should recognize that trying to fight the US industry in the middle nineties is a sign of courage. The currents seek to change the course of what exists, and it is these which together are <. strong> necessary to define our culture today
June 6, 2015
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