“ died without knowing why her chest riddled fighting for the right of a soil to live … ”
“ Life is eternal in five minutes “. His distinctive voice and guitar strumming sound on the radio, while Amanda and Manuel meet again before the sirens sound again back to work. And then I think no, it is not true that life can be eternal in such a short period of time. Maybe there lives to become eternal in the space of minutes and days, the same as required those who tried to silence blows and kicks to Victor Jara . The singer, who will represent forever smile that distant and utopian Chile, was killed today 42 years ago by soldiers who supported the Pinochet coup.
The singer was killed, along with Littré Quiroga, in the old Estadio Chile September 16, 1973
On September 16, 1973, the lifeless body of Victor Jara was thrown outside the metropolitan cemetery of Santiago de Chile. Next to him lay Littré Quiroga , director of the Prison Service, which had also been taken prisoner at the Estadio Chile, known today as Victor Jara Stadium in honor of the singer. The murder of both advocates of democratic government of Allende, is still open in memory of a country marked by seventeen years of dictatorship and repression of Pinochet wound. The circumstances of the crime that shocked the world remain unresolved at all, despite numerous inquiries of their families and of journalistic and judicial investigations carried out.
Four years before his death, the singer Rage shook the city of Puerto Montt, in southern Colombia, where Chilean police killed ten people and injured more seriously seventy. Questions for Puerto Montt , Jara told of the slaughter of Pampa Irigoin of March 9, 1969, the violent episode that marked the government of Eduardo Frei. “ Well, I’ll ask you, for you, for him, for you that one left off and died without knowing “. Who was going to tell the singer that his verses anticipate the horror of torture and repression that live in the first person in 1973 .
The truncated visit to the UTE
The September 11, 1973, Salvador Allende was expected to announce the call for a plebiscite in the State Technical University (UTE). Chilean president’s decision and sought an end to political and social unrest of the previous months, especially marked by Law No. 17,450, 1971, would nationalize the copper industry. The extent contrary to the interests of American mining companies Kennecott and Anaconda, aroused great mistrust in the government of Richard Nixon, he would end up supporting the golpe Pinochet status two years later.
Augusto Pinochet decided to advance the military coup September 11, a date chosen to announce a plebiscite Allende Allende’s visit to the joint venture, living times of change with the university reform, was cut short by the military uprising. Some researchers suggest that hit the rebels forward to September 11 to hacer Match the uprising with the announcement of the plebiscite .
Salvador Allende would never come to the State Technical University, where he hoped, between teachers, students and academics, Victor himself Jara, who was then a theater director of the institution.
The singer was known to be a member of the Communist Party of Chile and support Popular Unity coalition of leftist parties that led the president to own Allende in 1970 to receive 36.62% of the votes, ahead of Jorge Alessandri (35.27% of support). His political commitment was no accident, but a personal biography punctuated by poverty and inequality. Jara’s life was in some ways a reflection of Child Yuntero , the poem written by Miguel Hernandez become the Chilean song. From an early age, the singer had felt themselves verses of the poet of Orihuela, who died in 1942 in prison in Alicante.
Start living and begins to die from end to end up bark yoke her mother. Count your years do not know and you know that sweat is a grave crown of salt to the farmer.
Being very little Victor was forced with his brothers to leave school to help his parents, Manuel and Amanda in farm work. Her mother would teach him to read and the first guitar chords, something perfected to enter the seminary of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer with fifteen years, after the early death of his mother. Jara knew about misery, and no doubt his experiences of childhood and youth also determined commitment to Allende.
A commitment that, in a way, marked the prologue to the fatal outcome. Victor Jara said goodbye to his wife Joan Turner on September 11, 1973, approaching your workplace to support the announcement of Allende. But the Chilean president ever came to the meeting.
10:20 hours after broadcast for the second time it would be the last political speech, Radio Magallanes silent. An hour later, unaware of what was going to happen, the singer called Turner. “ I arrived safely despite troop movement, be calm and caring girls ,” he said by telephone. Twenty minutes later, the first bomb fell on the currency. The deafening sound was heard in the joint venture, next to the palace. Aware of the serious situation, Victor Jara would contact again with his wife. “ quiet Estate, I try to return home but later .”
At 14:00 the military entered the Currency, and soon surround the university. A policeman went to informing the rector Kirberg coup. “ No one can leave, even moving from one building to another, because they will receive fire. We are in a state of siege and curfew and entered into force.” Two hours later, Jara manages to communicate again with Joan, as she herself would relate:
After some difficulty I managed to talk to him. He said he could not get home by curfew, he would have to remain in the joint venture that night, I expected to see me at home the next morning. I loved … That was the last time we talked.
The transfer to the Estadio Chile
Little did they know the teachers and students of the UTE, nor Victor Jara, is that night in college was the beginning of hours and days marked by the horror of repression. On September 11, David Gonzalez, the Administrative Command of the Army, received an order from General Nurseries: should take over the commissariat a center for prisoners who were to create
That center was. Stadium Chile , the sports complex opened in 1949 turned into a torture center and prison overcrowding. There they locked up people for their ideas left from the evening of the 11. On the morning of the 12th, after a night of incessant gunfire, the military entered the university to take by force those who remained inside.
One of the military present rector Kirberg recognized, and as he threw against a wall pointing his rifle, shouted: “ So you’re the president, so and so now you will see what is the university autonomy! “Moments later gave fifteen seconds for the teacher to tell him where the weapons supposedly escondidas-, and the rector were, preserving the serenity, he replied: ” The weapons are University knowledge, art and culture “.
Despite the blows and kicks, Kirberg remained calm. When he heard that the School of Arts and Crafts, where Victor Jara was, there were clashes between the military and locked, the rector asked to intercede to prevent a massacre. Student Boris Nava would have removed them after a storm of gunfire, forcing them to lie on the ground. In the afternoon the 600 prisoners of the joint venture would be taken to the Chile Stadium. Many would not leave there alive, including Jara own.
“Prince” of torture
Threats, beatings, rifle butts. The prisoners made their entry into the complex, while the soldiers intimidated them with “Hitler saw” , machine guns capable of firing 30 rounds per second. The name was not casual, because the weapons were used in World War II , and had a rate of shot so high that he could get to “cut” a person in two.
Victor Jara was part of one of the rows of prisoners, until one of the soldiers recognized the singer. As Navia would relate to El País , military loudly ordered him to be brought where he was:! “ A bastard they bring me here to this asshole !, to that I do not treat him as Miss fuck “He snapped his officers. Then, one of the soldiers took a rifle butt Jara to bring him down, while the soldier was scolding him:
So you’re Victor Jara, the Marxist singer, communist shell of your mother , singer of shit!
Despite the blows and kicks in the ribs, Victor was still smiling. The apparent serenity of the singer further angered the military. “ It almost explodes an eye ,” said Navia. As it could not erase its peaceful gesture, the soldier took his gun and started to vent their rage against the head of Chile. Prince , as he knew the military, never came to be identified although some retired officer pointed to Edwin Dimter Bianchi .
In today Victor Jara Stadium 5,000 prisoners were crammed, when entering the complex only 2,000 people
Several journalistic investigations, as those made from the CIPER, They pointed out that the identity of “The Prince”, named after his voice high, blond hair and blue eyes, could correspond to that of Miguel Krasnov Marchenko. This agent was later a member of the National Intelligence Directorate (DINA), Pinochet’s secret police responsible for hundreds of torture, disappearances and murders.
Other testimonies related to “Prince” then lieutenants with Rodrigo Edgardo Nelson Rodriguez Fuschloger and Haase Mazzei, belonging to the School of Engineering of Tejas Verdes , one of the concentration camps and torture centers ordered by Pinochet. Far from arresting the beatings, the soldiers took the basements Victor Jara Stadium, a complex in which 5,000 prisoners were crammed, when the maximum capacity was 2,000 people.
The last song
There continued threats, kicks, insults. The Chilean who had sung “ A desalambrar ” saw him alambraban hands, stomped up the llenárselas bruising, breaking her bones. “ Look at my hands, look at my hands … crushed me to never play guitar again “, he told the journalist Sergio Jara Gutiérrez Patri in one of those “halls death. ” They suppressed the coup and singing and “working tools” of a man who would soon become the symbol of the repression of Pinochet. On September 14, Jara returned with the other prisoners and asked for paper and pencil. So write your last poem, I witnessed the horror of those hours, which would then be interpreted by Isabel Parra
Canto salts that bad when I have to sing fear, fright as I live, I die like horror. Of me among so many moments of infinity in which silence and screams are the goals of this song. I never saw what I see, what I felt and what I feel will sprout the moment …
Two days later, Victor Jara was again separated from other prisoners. That’s where the name of another officer appears, Pedro Barrientos , who decides to play Russian roulette with the Chilean. After the first shot in the head, the author of I remember Amanda or The cigarette began to convulse. Military then start tirotearle on the floor. In total, 44 bullets to silence him, 44 missiles to destroy him.
The military also peppered Littré Quiroga, who days earlier had written a farewell letter to his wife. The words of the official also recall the last conversation with Joan Jara Turner. “ I do not know what will become of me, but in any case take good care of my little children. They always remember her father and that our struggle will have to succeed someday .”
Both would be thrown in the cemetery outside metropolitan Santiago. But the last poem Jara was never silenced by the noise of bullets. Joan explained in an interview with the Forum for Memory that “ Victor had written in the stadium, on small pieces of paper that came out in a prisoner socks but were discovered by the military “. The other prisoners, however, had conspired to memorize those verses, and one of them, when released, it sent the wife of singer, exiled in London.
The funeral without flowers
After the shooting that took the life of Jara and Quiroga, an individual known as “Kiko” approached Héctor Herrera , pointing to the piles of bodies. “ There was Victor Jara “, narrated the civil registrar, who risking his work and his life, he decided to identify and take the data. The next morning, when the body entered the morgue, Herrera again recognized the singer’s body.
In 2009 a historic wake was held in Chile, chaired by Michelle Bachelet and Jara Family
Immediately the officer approached the home of Victor and Joan, telling his wife that the record 2547 corresponded to Chilean singer. It was Sunday, and using his status as a worker registry, they removed the corpse in secret, preventing it from becoming another of the 3,000 missing attributed to the Pinochet dictatorship .
36 years after his assassination and funeral without flowers Jara, a judge ordered the exhumation to perform the autopsy. The report of the Forensic Medical Service “obvious signs of having been beaten on the body and the bullets” were detailed. The truth about the death of Jara finally came to light. On December 4, 2009, Michelle Bachelet accompanied the family of the singer and the thousands of Chileans who accompanied them to celebrate a historic velario in his memory.
We might think that is so close an open wound in Chile, but the truth is that his murder has not yet been resolved. Last March, the special prosecutor of the Court of Appeals of Santiago, Miguel Vazquez, ordered an end to the investigation and prosecution of 12 people for the death of the author of Manifesto . In July, the charge of Vazquez reduced this number to 10 officials Ejército: Marmonti Hugo Sanchez, Raul Jofre González, Edwin Dimter Bianchi, Nelson Haase Mazzei, Jorge Gumucio Smith, Ernesto Bethke Wulf, Quintana Juan Jara Hernan Soto and Patricio Vasquez Chacon Donoso.
Simultaneously, the United States was to trial Pedro Barrientos, the military accused of killing Jara and escaped north Florida in 1990. When you open the case, the lawyer for the family of the singer also relied on poder extradite the military and so judge in Chile. While court proceedings are still open, to paraphrase one of his most famous songs, memory of Chile still waiting, 42 years later, to have the right to rest in peace .
September 16, 2015
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