With print books were born, but the spread of ideas and concepts through writing. An activity that goes back thousands of years and whose legacy lives through exceptional works.
The script has allowed accurately disseminate ideas across distance and time. It has provided documents that influenced the evolution of civilizations, ancient manuscripts that represent a unique and unrepeatable legacy that provided the basis for the development of cultures. Some of them have survived for hundreds and even thousands of years:
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Epopeya Gilgamesh was discovered in the mid-twentieth century in the ruins of Nineveh Library , near present-day Mosul (Iraq). It is a long poema Content in twelve large stone tablets dating aproximandamente 650 BC but they found fragments of history with more than 4,000 years old.
Gilgamesh was a (modern Iraq mythical king of Uruk href=”https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uruk”> , an ancient Mesopotamian city ). Lugalbanda priest and son of the goddess Ninsun, the Sumerian culture gave him superhuman abilities, dating his reign in 126 years full of epic adventures.
Contains some similarities with the biblical Flood In fact, as the epic poem begins with the story of his exploits. As a man of great knowledge and wisdom, he wrote on tablets of stone all its activities during his long reign, including the construction of the city walls of Uruk and the Temple of Eanna. it is also characterized as an oppressive and totalitarian ruler, so that their subjects sought help from the gods to invoke a nemesis that I could finish him. However, Gilgamesh and Enkidu his nemesis good friends and together they starred were great battles in which they acquired fame and wealth, until the latter was killed. A tragedy that led to the Sumerian king to find the secret of immortality in the hands of Utnapishtim .
A poem that has some similarities to the Flood contained in the Bible and is the oldest part of the Western epic literature.
Thousands of years ago he was also sent correspondence. In 1887 they were in the region of Amarna (Egypt) about 350 clay tablets that constituted authentic letters of correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in the kingdoms of Canaan and Amurru. are dated during the . reigns of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV pharaohs, 3,400 years ago They are written by cuneiform characters in the language at that time was considered the most appropriate for diplomatic contacts: the Akkadian.
The content of these letters include unique international affairs between Egypt and other Middle Eastern kingdoms as Babylon, Assyria Arzawan or Anatolia. No doubt a priceless treasure that test communications antiquity through letter.
Gynecology Papyri Kahun
Around the year 1,825 BC (Year 29 in the reign of Pharaoh Amenenhat ), an Egyptian doctor wrote down the date on the back of a papyrus was discovered almost 4,000 years later, in 1889. Its discoverer, Flinders Petrie, found this authentic Medicine treasure near the present city of Lehun and named it in honor of Kahun ancient city founded by Pharaoh Sesostris.
A late Victorian era and the beginning of the century XX a great fascination for the civilization of Ancient Egypt broke out, which resulted in a huge demand for new gadgets and objects found among the tombs. It was the golden age of Egyptian archeology. Petrie himself even further appreciated that this papyrus lapis lazuli and gold jewelry around him at the site.
uterine spraying was recommended as a treatment for pain was good reason for this: it was the first evidence of the history of medicine and women’s health. A work that managed to translate and publish in 1893 by British geneticist and physician Frederick Griffith . Specifically, the work is divided into 34 sections, each devoted to a specific health problem A text that has a very distinctive style. First a brief overview of the symptoms was collected after He advised the doctor how to treat the patient for a diagnosis and ultimately treatment is suggested. Truly a style similar to that used today.
The problem was that many of ailments were often related to the state of the uterus. Yes, we now see it as something absurd that defies logic, but the ancient Egyptians believed that the poor condition of the uterus produced pains and problems with your eyes, teeth, head and joints. And misdiagnosis for worse treatment because the suggestions contained in the papyrus included spraying the uterus and the introduction of pessaries in the vagina. However, no mention of surgery did, though other tips for pregnancy as the use of incense, oils and even beer intake were collected
. “If a woman suffers from sore eyes until losing sight, pain comes from the upper neck and was born as downloads of the uterus in his eyes “ Gynecology Papyrus Fragment Kahun.
Novel Chaereas and Calírroe
This is a obra considered the first romantic novel in history. Its author was Chariton of Aphrodisias , a writer from Ancient Greece to the late first century AD He developed a work of eight volumes that tell adventures and eventful journeys of two nature lovers Syracuse.
It seems incredible, but it was not until the eighteenth century when the novel was published for the first time. It tells the story of Chaereas, a young man who falls for the beautiful Calírroe, the daughter of a hero of the Peloponnesian War and most relevant figure of Syracuse account. However, it has a political background that is a journey through the Mediterranean geography. From Syracuse to Babylon, through sites such as the city of Miletus and the Euphrates river
Erotic Papyrus of Turin
The ancient Egyptians also knew laugh at themselves. it is a work known for its humorous and erotic content , developed during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II . It was found in the village of Deir el-Medina, Thebes, a small village that was inhabited by craftsmen and workers who made the famous tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
The papyrus is composed of two sections different but related in a fun way: on the right side there is a group of animals playing different instruments and performing own human activities while on the left side you can see up to twelve scenes of couples adopting different sexual positions. Of course, the representation is almost a caricature, as the scribe decided to exaggerate the size of sexual organs and provide an unnatural scene. Therefore, the meaning of this manuscript remains a mystery. Was meant to be humorísico or maybe it was a mere entertainment cartoonist Or is perhaps the Egyptian version of the Kama Sutra