Types of volcanoes

According to Earth Sciences, a volcano is an opening, mouth or crack that communicates the Earth’s surface with the interior of the planet, allowing or offering the possibility that incandescent magma (molten rock), water vapour and gases are expelled and poured over the Earth’s crust, through a crater, depositing around this opening, during a process called an eruption.

Volcanoes are usually located at the ends of tectonic plates, both on land and at the bottom of the sea.

However, as noted by National Geographic, ninety percent of these geological formations are above the so-called “Fire Belt” located along the edges of the Pacific Ocean. However, they are not unique to our planet, with evidence of volcanoes found on other planets in and outside our galaxy.

However, there are several types of volcanoes, which are classified, according to their structures, their degree of activity and even the way they erupt. In this sense, Science considers the types of volcanoes to exist to be as follows:

Because of its degree of activity

Active volcanoes: are the geological formations that enter into a state of activity, that is, they begin to experience volcanic processes typical of an eruption, that is, expelling ash and gases, among other materials.

Along the globe, most volcanoes are not active. However, there are some that remain active for years, constantly threatening to erupt; others, on the other hand, are “activated” for a while, even a few days, and then go back to sleep.

Volcanoes off: this type of volcano does not exhibit any type of activity, i.e. it does not expel gases, lava or other materials. Science considers a volcano to be off or a sleeping volcano when geological formation takes a long time, perhaps years or decades, without any activity. So too these types of volcanoes, even if they could expel ash or gases, they rarely erupt.

Extinct volcanoes: within this group of volcanoes are those that have not presented activity in at least the last twenty-five thousand years. According to what scientists have studied, almost whenever an active volcano experiences a strong or large eruption, it then shuts down for thousands of years, becoming an extinct volcano.

By the intensity of its eruption

This category classifies volcanoes according to the intensity, characteristics and aftermath left by their type of eruption. In it you can find four types of volcanoes, ranging from the most harmless to the deadliest and most aggressive, whose eruption leaves a dramatic mark on the territory where it is located, and sometimes hundreds of kilometers around it. In this sense, volcanoes are classified by the intensity of eruption into the following types:

Effusive or Hawaiian: even though its lava, which is characterized by being quite fluid, can be seen near the rim of the crater, such volcanoes do not usually erupt very often. They are named after the islands of Hawaii, in which there are several geological formations with these characteristics.

However, they are not exclusive to these Pacific islands, and can be found in various parts of the world. Likewise, they are characterized by having a type of soft slope. Many cities form near them, as they do not pose an imminent risk to their inhabitants.

Mixed or strombolian: it is a little more aggressive than Hawaiian, presenting over time explosions and gas fumes, however the lava of these volcanoes is not as fluid as that of Hawaiians, characteristic that makes the range radius of this type of v olcan don’t be so big.

Volcanic: Much more violent than Hawaiians and strombolians, volcanic snosares are characterized by starring in aggressive eruptions, throwing a lot of rocks, ash, gases and lava into the air. Likewise, its slope is much steeper, so its lava can move at greater speed and distance. They are extremely dangerous to humans and animals.

Explosives: These types of volcanoes are considered by scientists to be the most dangerous volcanoes that exist both for living things that live near it, and for those who do so at a certain distance, because the aggressive eruptions of these volcanoes they can throw rocks, gases and ash into the air so strongly that their effect can be felt for miles.

Its eruption is so violent that it is capable of catapulting into the air the very geological formation, being responsible for earthquakes, large tsunamis, and even clouds of ash that cover the sky for weeks or months, killing vegetation, animals and also Human. Throughout history the eruption of such volcanoes have caused disappearances of entire populations and cultures.

Image source: volcanpedia.com

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Bibliography ►

phoneia.com (August 22, 2019). Types of volcanoes. Bogotá: E-Cultura Group. Recovered from https://phoneia.com/en/curiosities/types-of-volcanoes/