Adolfo Hitler (October 20 April 1889 – Berlin, Germany, 30 April 1945). Military Leader, Political Leader and German Ruler, of Austrian origin, also known as the “Fuhrer”, who led the German National Socialist Workers Party, best distinguished as the Nazi Party, as well as the presidency of Germany between 1934 and 1945.
It was the agenciing device of World War II and the Holocaust, the systematic elimination of all those not belonging to the Aryan race, considered by Hitler and his numerous followers to be the superior.
He is considered one of the most influential people in history, managing to lead and mobilize millions of supporters, although his legacy of death, ruin and suffering is remembered as one of the darkest times in Europe.
Adolfo Hitler was born in a small town in Austria, called Braunau am Inn, on April 20, 1889, into a humble family. His father, Alois Hitler, was a customs official, while his mother Klara Polzl, was a housewife, descended from farmers. He had five brothers.
When Hitler reached the age of three, the family moved to Germany. From an early age, he showed a penchant for the arts. In 1903, his father died. He abandoned formal education and moved to Vienna, where he was employed as a worker and decorative painter, poverty led him to live in a shelter.
At that time he presented entrance tests at the Academy of Art and the Vienna School of Architecture. He was rejected by both institutions.
World War I
In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he enlisted in the troops of the German Army, where he participated in several important battles. In 1916, he was wounded during the Battle of Somme, which is why he was decorated with the Iron Cross, in his First Class, at the end of the war.
The surrender of Germany in 1918 and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, accepting responsibility for starting the war, as well as the demilitarization of the Rhine, plunged Adolphus into a deep depression, which led him to accumulate a deep resentment towards the leaders Marxists and civilians, whom he believed had betrayed the German Army.
German National Socialist Workers’ Party
After the war, he returned to Munich, where he continued to serve the Army, serving in intelligence, being appointed to follow the DAP, the German Workers’ Party, led by Anton Drexler. During his mission, he sympathized with nationalist ideas, preached by the organization. In 1919 he formally joined the party.
Subsequently, the DAP changed its name to the German National Socialist Workers’ Party (NSDAP) which would later become known as the Naza party. At that time, Adolfo was already a fervent militant, he designed the badge himself, choosing a swastika in the middle of a white circle on a red background.
His radical and nationalist speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, Marxists and Jewish communities had positioned him as a leader. In 1921, he replaced Drexler.
On 8 November 1923, in the company of members of the Sturmabteilung (NSDAP paramilitary force) he broke into a brewery in Munich, proclaiming the end of the Weimar Republic, in an attempted coup d’état, known as the Putsh de la Cervecería.
He was charged with treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg prison, from where he left a year later, thanks to a pardon. During his arrest he drafted My Struggle, the ideological base of Nazi Germany.
In 1932, he ran for the presidency of Germany, as an opponent of Paul von Hindeburg, achieving more than 35% of the vote. He was appointed Chancellor, a position he took advantage of to suspend basic constitutional guarantees.
On 14 July 1933 all political parties, with the exception of the Nazi party, went illegal. After Hindenburg’s death, Hitler assumed the presidency, becoming the German head of state and the commander of the German Armed Forces. One of his first measures was to withdraw Germany from the League of Nations.
His Government was characterized by social campaigns against tobacco, alcohol and meat use. A policy of racial prophylaxis was established, prohibiting marriage between German aryans and Jews. The “non-Aryan” Germans lost their rights. A euthanasia programme for people with disabilities was established.
Concentration camps were opened, where at least 14 million people were systematically killed between 1935 and 1945, for their skin colour, nationality, sexual preferences, political or religious ideas.
World War II and final years
In 1938, he signed the Munich Agreement with other nations. However, on 1 September 1938, he invaded Poland. France and Britain declared war, leading to World War II.
In 1940, he managed to invade France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands and Scandinavians; He bombed the UK and signed an alliance with Italy and Japan to prevent the United States from supporting England. On 22 June 1941, he decided to march against Stalin’s Soviet Union. In December 1941, the Germans had to surrender, before entering Moscow.
Germany ran out of resources, its army began to make mistakes. In 1942, German troops were defeated in the Suez Canal, in Stalingrad and at the Battle of Kursk. On 6 June 1944, the Allies landed north of French territory. By 1945, the Red Army had succeeded in the recoil of German troops, while Allied troops advanced against Germany.
The war was lost. On April 30, 1945, in his bunker in Berlin, Adolf Hitler committed suicide with his romantic partner, Eva Braun, they had apparently married a day earlier. Germany surrendered on 7 May 1945. Europe had been devastated, it was ruined economically and morally, after a war that left at least 40 million people in its wake.
Image source: soylatino.cl
July 27, 2019