He has been regarded as the “father of reason”, since he was one of Plato’s main opponents, whose philosophy was being the Being, the opposite of thought and reason.
The man who revolutionized thought
He was born in Estagira. From a very young age he lost his parents. When he was 17, he was teaching directly from Plato in Athens. Almost 20 years later Plato dies and Aristotle travels to Axos. There he married and had a daughter with Pitias, a niece of Hermias de Atarneo, who had conquered several territories.
He devoted himself to writing and teaching his ideas in these regions of Axos. His wife died soon after and again married Erpilis, with whom he had his son Nicómaco to whom he then dedicated one of his major works called ‘Ethics’.
After a while he returned to Athens and founded the Lyceum where he promulgated a doctrine completely contrary to his master Plato. There he arrived on the run from Alexander the Great, whom he suspected he was going to kill him, since he had killed one of his nephews a short time ago.
The concept of Metaphysics, ‘Ethics’ and his treatise on ‘Politics’ were his most highlighted and listed works as one of the most important contributions to modern knowledge, based on reason.
Aristotle also studied Biology and for some time took charge of Alexander the Great, formerly Alexander of Macedonia. But after his nephew’s murder, he decided to flee to protect his life. Then, years later, when he had taken hold of the Lyceum, he also had to flee to see what happened with Socrates, due to the invasion of anti-Macadonio nationalism.
His main works were: The first and last analytical ones. About Philosophy. Books of Metaphysics- Eudemus Ethics and Nicomachus Ethics. History of animals and some twilights about animals. Works on natural beings. Books about the soul. Books on physics. Politics and Rhetoric Books.
He affirmed the existence of a single world and that contemplation was the only way to know this reality. According to him, matter is not separated from universal ideas, but is intimately linked. Thus it was as Aristotle guided Science to the methodology of experimentation and observation of nature.
One of the main differences with Plato was that plato claimed that there were two worlds: a real one, which was the Infinite Universe, and another unreal, formed by our minds and the social system, which he compared analogously to the “Myth of the Cavern”. But for Aristotle there was not such, but one world and already.
In one thing that coincides with his Master, it is that “movement is the basic principle that governs the Universe”; everything moves, everything changes; everything has a before and after. Also in that “God is the engine of the universe, which is a motionless engine and the cause of everything.” He affirmed emphatically the stooges, that the Universe was a closed set of matter and outside it nothing exists, because it is eternal and that in the center, there is the Earth and around it spinning all the planets.
He died on the island of Chalcis in 322 B.C., exiled. Andronicus of Rhodes, the last responsible of the Lyceum, was the one who saved Aristotle’s works and made them known to the whole world.
June 30, 2019