Genghis Khan (Mongolia, 1162 A.D.– ibid., 1227). Military Leader, Political Leader, Noble and Mongol Emperor, also known as Temujín, who took control of the individual tribes of Northeast Asia, adding them under his power.
He also ruled other peoples of Europe, becoming the ruler of the Mongol Empire, the largest ever in the world, with nearly 12 million square miles, ranging from the Caspian Sea to Japan, eventually having under his power more than 700 cities, who obeyed the supreme mandate of Genghis Khan, who was characterized by his iron hand and brutal attacks.
Under the name Temujín, he was born near the northern center of Mongolia, around 1162, within the Borjugin tribe. At the age of nine, he was taken by his father to the tribe where Borte, his future wife, lived. On the return journey, his father was poisoned by the Tatars, in revenge for the past aggressions to his people.
Upon learning the news, Temujin returned, to reclaim his post as successor. However, the tribe execred him, along with his mother and siblings. In exile, sibling rivalries began, Temujin killed Bekhter, his half-brother, thus confirming his post as Head of The Family.
Marriage and children
When he was 16, he eventually married Borte, joining the Konkirat tribe. Soon, the Merkit tribe stormed the village, kidnapping Borte, and handing it over to a chief of this tribe as his wife.
Temujin managed to rescue his wife, who soon gave birth to a son, who was taken over by Tamujin as his own, despite doubts about the paternity of the baby, who was baptized as Jochi. Along with his wife, Borte had a total of four children.
However, he had many other wives throughout his life, with whom he also begat many more descendants. However, only the sons he had with Borte were regarded as his successors.
Genghis Khan’s Revenge
When Tamujin was 20 years old, the village was raided by the Taichi Uts, who took him with him and enslaved him.
He managed to escape and on his return, organized together with his brothers and other men of the tribe, an army of more than 20,000 men, who deployed in battle, against tribal divisions, struggling to unite them all under one government, demonstrating a level of organization, technology and barbarism never before seen in Asian territory. One of the first actions was to avenge the death of his father. Tamujin decreed the murder of all Tatar men.
He then managed to subdue the Taichi’ut, who had enslaved him, ordering all the chiefs of the tribe to be boiled alive. He also marched with his army over the Niman tribe, defeating it and gaining full control of the entire center and east of the territory.
Communications and military technology
His army had grown to 80,000 men. He developed communication techniques through smoke, torches, flags and drum taps, which provided his army with great coordination.
He also organized a large network of informants and spies, who kept him informed about the war technologies of his enemies, which he copied quickly. For their part, each soldier was well equipped with equipment, carrying with him a bow, arrows, a dagger, a bow and a shield. Tamujin also designed a war supply entourage, marching alongside the army, providing water, food and medicine to both men and animals.
Birth of the Mongol Empire
The chiefs of other tribes decided to agree to peace and recognize him as a ruler. He was awarded the title of Genghis Khan, which can be translated as “Ruler of the Universe”, and which transcends the political, giving him the character of spiritual leader.
He was also declared the representative on earth of the mongol’s greatest god, Mongke Koko Tengri (translated as “eternal blue sky”). Genghis Khan became a leader of a semi-divine nature, disobeying him, was disobeying God’s will. However, his immense power, Genghis Khan had to assume a period of resource scarcity, due to opposing environmental conditions.
In search of food, in 1207 he decided to advance with his troops towards the xi Xia kingdom, managing to defeat him after two years of combat. In 1211, attracted by the vast rice fields in northern China, they waged a campaign against the Jin dynasty, which spanned two decades, during which time it also marched against Muslims and other empires located on their borders.
After an affront of the Turkish Khwarizm dynasty, which dominated Turkestan, Persia and Afghanistan, in which one of its diplomats was beheaded, Genghis Khan swept Central Asia and Central Europe in 1219, along with 200,000 soldiers, who exterminated all inhabitants and animals they found in their wake, forming great pyramids of bodies.
His empire became the largest territory in the world. After this terrible victory, a period came called by historians as Mongyth Peace.
Legacy and later years
His mandate was characterized by strict laws whose non-compliance was punishable by death, known as the Yassa Code, which prohibited adultery, theft, family revenge and false testimonies, as well as environmental norms prohibiting bathing in rivers. He broke with succession in military and government positions, implementing meritocracy. Within his empire, religious tolerance was practiced.
After eventually conquering Xi Xia, Ghengis Khan died. The causes of his death remain unclear. Some researchers point out that he may have fallen off a horse, although others claim he died from a respiratory condition. According to legend, he was buried in a cemetery, near his birthplace, on which the course of a river was diverted, so that he would not be found.
Image source: biography.com
July 27, 2019