Genovevo of the O (Santa Maria Ahuacatitlán, Morelos, Mexico, January 3, 1876 – Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Morelos, Mexico, June 12, 1952). Revolutionary military leader, recognized for his active participation in the ranks of the Mexican revolution, led by Emiliano Zapata.
From an early age he devoted himself to the defense of land rights by his people, dedicating his life to armed and political struggle, within the ranks of the revolutionary ranks of the Southern Liberation Army and the Mexican Army, in order to achieve reform that would also favor pawns and peasants, and not just the great farmers.
Genovevo of the O was born on January 3, 1876 (although other historical sources point out that his birth may have occurred on August 12 of that year) in Mexico, in the town of Santa María Ahuacatitlán, located in the state of Morelos, north of Cuernavaca.
Having been born into a peasant family, from a young age he witnessed the humiliations and thefts of communal land, which were taken away by the Temixco estate and its powerful owners.
Likewise, he could see how the peasants organized to undertake a trial in claiming their lands, which obviously won the landowners by order of the Court of the Holy Inquisition, who was the body consulted.
Genovevo de la O grew between harsh socioeconomic conditions, at the time of the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. From a young age he joined the fight against the Hacienda de Temixco, deforestation and the theft of communal land.
He also became an opponent of the Poraphyrinist government and the candidacy of Pablo Escandón, a landowner who intended the Governorate of Morelos. After his position was known, on 7 February 1909 his arrest was ordered. He was searched for by six rural policemen, but he defended himself with his machete, swept off a rifle at one of his captors and stepped into the mountain.
The following year, in 1910, he managed to assemble a group of twenty-five men, in order to support the revolution of Don Francisco I. Madero, who intended to oppose the last re-election of Porfirio Díaz. The goal was to enforce the promises of the St. Louis Plan, which seemed to offer an opportunity to reclaim the lands.
In the woodpeckers, Genovevo de la O managed to gain the rank of Captain First of The Infantry, being assigned control of the forested region and the northwest. However, like other peasants who supported Madero at first, he was disappointed, seeing that once in the presidency, made no more than the promises of land reform offered.
At that time, Emiliano Zapata began his rebellion in Villa de Ayala. On 26 May 1911, after taking Cuautla, he triumphantly entered Cuernavaca, addressing Captain Genovevo de la O directly. That same year the revolutionaries, including Genoveo de la O, signed with their new leader, Emiliano Zapata, the Ayala Plan.
The Government of Madero rejected the proposals that made up this Plan, causing the now Zapatistas to rise up, starting an armed struggle. Genovevo de la O was appointed to the northern area of Morelos and appointed Captain of the Infantry. From the beginning he showed his courage and courage in the struggle for the rights of the people, ascending that same year to Colonel of the Southern Liberation Army.
His division was distinguished by the successes achieved in the clashes with federal troops in Cuernavaca. Among them is the triumph of the Zapatista forces against General Robles’ men, which added thousands of followers to the revolutionary movement. In 1912, De la O commanded the takeover of Huitzilac, however he had to surrender. De la O resisted, but that same year General Naranjo managed to take the village.
In 1913, De la O and his men would face the troops of Victoriano Huerta in the state of Mexico, in a match that would run until 1915 and that would make him promote to the rank of General, due to his participation. At the time, De la O had a radical position, opposing Victoriano Huerta as much as Venustiano Carranza and his Constitutional Army. The latter ordered his troops to capture De la O, starting an arduous pursuit. De la O fled again to the mountainous area of Morelos.
Death of Emiliano Zapata
In 1919, General Emiliano Zapata was assassinated by Colonel Jesús Guajardo, who invited him to a negotiation, setting him up. Upon his physical disappearance, Gildardo Magaña succeeds him, taking control of the Southern Liberation Army.
One of his first actions is to adhere to the Prieta Water Plan, in order to fight with Alvaro Obregón Venustiano Carranza, under Obregón’s promise that if he could reach the presidency, an agrarian reform would be enacted that would respond to the demands of the Ayala Plan. In this new struggle, Genovevo de la O was appointed with the responsibility of being the Head of Military Operations of Morelos, later fulfilling in Aguas Calientes and in Mexico City the same role.
In 1941, after sixty-five years of age and more than forty years of revolutionary struggle, Genovevo of the O retired from armed struggle, although he remained active in the political struggle. In 1940 he founded the Zapatista Front.
Five years later, in 1945, he also formed the Federation of People’s Parties in Mexico, of which he was President for a few years. Finally, on June 12, 1952, he died in Santa Maria Ahuacatitlán. His body was veiled in the Plenary Hall of the Chamber of Deputies of Mexico, before being taken to his last abode in the cemetery of the town that saw him born.
Image source: elnuevografico.com
August 6, 2019