Isaac Newton (December 25, 1642 – 1727). Scientist, Inventor, Mathematician and Physics, recognized for discovering the Law of Gravity, as well as for its great contributions to the world of Mathematics, is considered one of the most brilliant scientists of all eras.
A genius obsessed with kabalah and Zohar
Distracted in nature, he was described by his contemporaries as a man constantly immersed in his thoughts, who as a child dreamed awake and devoted long hours to reading and reflecting on mathematical problems.
He was born the same year of Galileo’s death, being premature. He was so small that they didn’t think he’d survive. His father had died three months before his birth. His mother was with him for only two years, before moving to a neighboring town, after marrying a rather older clergyman, leaving him in the care of his grandmother. Eight later, when her husband died, she returned to Newton’s three younger brothers.
At age 12, Newton enrolled in Grantham High School. The plan was for once a graduate to take over the Family Farm. At the time, he showed great incapacity for agriculture. In school he also did not highlight much, passing the subjects with the score barely necessary and presenting inattention.
On the other hand, from a very young age, he showed great skill for invention. Early creations include some sundials and a wheat mill that used the power generated by a mouse when running on its wheel.
Signs that caused his uncle, an alumnus of Cambridge University, to convince his mother to send him to that university. In 1661, Newton entered Trinity College, where he had to work as a waiter and cleaning staff for the dormitories of the wealthiest students and teachers, in order to pay his tuition.
However, it was also the site where he first came into contact with the world of Mathematics, proving to be able to follow the studies of Euclid and Descartes, despite not having much knowledge in the area.
In 1664, he was elected to an academic position, when his professor, the mathematician Isaac Barrow, resigned his post, to leave it to him, thanks to his exceptional skills and mathematical knowledge. The position insuring Newton at least four years of economic income.
However, in 1665, the University closed in order to prevent an outbreak of the Plague spreading in Europe. Newton devoted the next two years, before his return to Cambridge in 1667, to the exhaustive study and constant reflection of mathematical theories and problems.
Historians consider that his greatest discoveries took place between 1664 and 1666, when, based on the background posed by Galileo, Descartes and Kepler, Newton managed to invent the Calculation, discovered the Universal Law of Gravity and deepened the study of curves, optics and analytical geometry.
However, he did not make his findings public, until many years later. Circumstances that earned him the greatest epistolary and personal discussions, when other scientists came to the same conclusions that he had come to years ago, publishing them and remaining as pioneers.
For example, in 1684, a mathematician of German origin, named Leibiniz, published a work on the Calculus, identical to that discovered by Newton in 1666. When the news reached Ingleterra, Isaac Newton responded by infuriating himself, prompting hundreds of communications and litigation over the rights to the discovery. Finally, in 1693, Newton published his discovery on calculus, but history considers Leibiniz as its creator.
Laws on movement
His first major public scientific achievement was the invention and construction of a reflective telescope, whose mirroring technique used the foundations of chromatic aberration, opening the way to the development of the technology used in today’s telescope. This discovery made him worthy of being a Member of the Royal Society.
In 1684, he began writing his Philosophical Principles of Mathematics, where he formulated his three main Laws on Movement, the basis of modern technology used in space rocket and jet propulsion. He shared his years of teaching at Cambridge with the study of the movement of the planets, a matter that he stole from and dedicated, according to some biographers, up to 19 hours of study, increasing his distracted character.
Latest years and legacy
On 30 November 1703 he was elected president of the Royal Society, a position in which he was re-elected for 25 continuous years. On 16 April 1705 he received the order of Cavalry of the Court of England.
Sir Isaac Newton never married, spent the rest of his life immersed in his mathematical studies, living off the incomes of some well-made investments. He died in London in 1727, at the age of 85. He was buried in Westminster Abbey at a lavish funeral.
His scientific contributions forever changed the way the universe was conceived, contributing to the development of the most advanced modern technology in areas such as astronomy and space engineering. Many of his approaches were so advanced that they were understood by mathematicians until fifty years after their promulgation. He is considered one of the 100 most influential people in history.
Image source: medciencia.com
July 20, 2019