Gaius Julius Caesar (Rome, 13 July 100 BC – Ibid., 15 March 44 BC). Better known as Julius Caesar, he was a military and political leader, who ruled Rome, extended its territory and managed to carry the Latin language and customs through most of Europe.
He is historically recognized as a talented man in every way: he proved to be a great strategist and a courageous warrior; manifested great oratory skills, which only surpassed Cicero, was shrewd and was able to defeat each of his rivals.
As ruler he amassed power and gained the affection of various sectors of the population. In his advance on Europe, he changed the continent forever, which is why he is considered one of the most influential men in history.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 13 July 100 BC to a patrician family, sympathetic to the People’s Party. His father came to occupy the Pretura, the second most important position in the Roman state.
From the age of ten, Julio César began his education under the tutelage of Marco Antonio Gnifón, demonstrating great talent for Literature and the Oratory. In 85 BC, when he was fifteen, he lost his father.
Soon, he married Cornelia, daughter of Cinna, one of the top leaders of the People’s Party. The couple had a daughter they named Julia, with which they always kept in touch, and for which they felt great affection.
In 82 BC, Sila returned victoriously to Rome, after achieving the withdrawal of Mithridates. He immediately began to take revenge on his Popular Party rivals. Caesar demanded that he repudiate Cornelia. Julius Caesar answered “in Caesar only commanded Caesar,” and fled to Asia.
From that moment he was placed in his head, and he was hard chased, until the intervention of people close to the ruler achieved his pardon. However, he did not return to Rome. The term prepressor conferred the rank of Officer on him. At his service he fought in the takeover of Mytilene from Lesbos, whose courageous actions made him worthy of a decoration.
He was sent to Bitinia, in order to strengthen relations with King Nicomedes, of whom he became a great friend. In 78 BC, after Sila’s death, Julius Caesar finally returned to Rome, to his surprise he found a strong containment towards the Republicans. In order to train for what he knew would be an arduous political struggle, he moved to Rhodes to study Oratory, under the tutoring of Apolio de Molón.
From 69 BC, he began to hold several positions. That year he was appointed Cuestor. In 65 BC he took over from Edil. Two years later, in 63 BC he was dressed in the title of Grand Pontiff. In 62 BC he was appointed Pretor, as was his father, twenty-three years ago. Between 61 and 60 BC he assumed the position of Propretor of Hispania Ulterior.
In 60 BC he returned to Rome, achieving with his political sagacity the reconciliation between Crassus and Pompey, and the formation of a triumvirate, of which he was a part, in order to face the optimates, who were a majority in the Senate. Julius Caesar was in charge of strengthening the alliance, marrying his daughter Julia to Pompey, while he married Calpurnia. A year later, in 59 BC he was elected Consul.
Fight for power
His tenure quickly won him popular support. He handed out land, made Senate discussions public, and increased control over governors. He managed for seven years to gain full control of Galia Cisalpina, Iliria and Narbonense.
In 53 BC, Crassus passed away. A year later, after Julia’s death, the rivalry between Julius Caesar and Pompey erupted. Julius Caesar conquered the total of the provinces of Gala, worrying Pompey, who since 52 BC had been elected sole consul of Rome.
On his return, Julius Caesar faced Pompey, giving way in 49 BC to a civil war, in which he amassed victories. Eventually, Pompey fled to Alexandria, where he was killed by Ptolemy’s troops in 48 BC.
For his part, Julius Caesar gained power over Rome, conquered Hispania, and decided to march on Egypt, where he resolved the succession conflict between the Ptolemy and Cleopatra husbands and brothers, whom he helped win power, and with whom he had a son, named Caesarion. Over the next few years, he was in charge of defeating each of his enemies.
In 47 BC he triumphed over Pharnaces, king of Ponto. In 46 BC he won the battle of Tapso, against the Pompeyists, who still resisted in Africa. In 45 BC he defeated, at the Battle of Munda, the sons of Pompey, achieving with this the triumph of the Civil War, which he had undertaken three years ago, and full control of the power of Rome.
Mandate and murder
He established a military dictatorship, which he disguised with the preservation of the Senate body, which nevertheless functioned simply as a council of the prince. It also changed the candelario, which was used until the 16th century, and transformed the Roman government from an oligarchic regime to a monarchy with populist policies.
Fearing that Julius Caesar would be appointed king, completely abolishing the Republic, the Senators planned a plot to assassinate him, which was led by Casca, Cassius and Brutus, adopted son of Julius Caesar.
On March 15, 44 BC, when he came to the Senate to discuss the start of a campaign against the Parthians, Julius Caesar was attacked with daggers and daggers by the senators, dying, not before exclaiming “You too, my son,” seeing Brutus among his attackers. Julius Caesar was succeeded by his great-nephew Octavian Augustus.
Image source: biografiasyvidas.com
July 31, 2019