In 1891, a renowned Swiss economist named Walter Eucken, professor at the universities of Tubingen, Freiburg and Berlin, founded neoliberalism.
A current that has been quite questioned
But over time, the main exponents of this current have emerged today, which, above all, is very much stagnant in Latin America at this moment. One of those most notable representatives of neoliberalism is Kent Gillingham of England. Today, he teaches at City University in New York and miliband Fellow at the London School of Economics.
David Harvey conducted a study of Kent County as a undergraduate thesis during the 19th century. It was in 1960 that he began his interest in themes of neopositivism and quantitative methods in Geography.
One of his most famous and representative publications of neoliberalism was “Explanation in Geogrpahy”, published in 1969. Dick Chorley and Peter Haggett were also part of the neoliberal scholars at the University of Cambridge.
Mainly, in the period from the 1980s to 2000, the presidents of different political parties and nationalities began to implement these neoliberal programmes in concrete and definitive; this happened especially in South America such as:
- President of Mexico, Carlos Salinas
- President of Bolivia, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
- President of Chile, Augusto Pinochet
- President of Argentina, Carlos Menem
- President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique
- President of Peru, Alberto Fujimori
- President of the United States, Ronald Reagan
- President of Colombia: César GaviriaThe term as such “neoliberalism” is attributed to the work of a number of economists such as Mr. Walter Eucken. These scholars of economics are: Milton Friedman and Friederich Hayek.
Their ideas suggest that the private sector should take over as many economic activities as possible. Likewise, among its proposals is that the State depart as much as possible from the economy, privatizing all public enterprises, as well as labor flexibility, such as six-monthly contracts for the provision of services, etc.
These exponents of such an ideological, economic and political stance consider that private actors are more productive and that governments should leave to the great business, the fate of the wealth of all citizens.
This term of neoliberalism is used by both left-wing and right-wing currents. Both for capitalists and for communists. He seems to twinors them or identify them. According to its main exponents, it is a class of heterodox liberalism, coming from the bourgeois ideology.
In Colombia the main exponents have been for example, César Gaviria Trujillo or Misael Pastrana with his son Andrés Pastrana, all presidents. They imposed the UPAC, a failed neoliberal system of home acquisition through bank loans. People even had to hand over their housing to cancel the famous UPAC.
From this financial crisis, the Colombian government adopted new taxes such as “two per thousand”, then “three per thousand” and not suffice, the “four per thousand”.
According to experts, Adam Smith, the most famous economist listed in his branch, the positions of economic neoliberalism were consolidated.
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July 7, 2019