Muhammad (Mecca, 26 April 570 A.D., – Medina, 632 A.D.). Religious leader, whose name is probably a Castilian variable of “Muhammad”, “Mohammed” or “Mahomet”.
He is considered by his followers the founder of Islam, as well as the human means through which God brought to men the “aayahs” of the Qur’aan, the only book of this religion, written on the basis of the message given by Muhammad, who believes himself to be illiterate.
For Islam, Muhammad is “the seal of the prophets” for being the last of an extensive list of divine messengers, born to propagate the word of God, including Abraham (Ibrahim, in the Qur’aan), Moses (Musa) and Jesus of Nazareth (Isa). For Muslims, God would have chosen Muhammad to perfect his message.
Belonging to the Quraysh Arab tribe, he lost his father Abdullah two months before he was born. At just a few months old, a beudony nurse was handed out to care, in line with an Arab tradition. His mother died when he was 6 years old, from which he came under the protection of his grandfather Hallimah, who also died, then going into the care of his uncle Abu Talib and his wife Fatima Bint Asad.
At the age of 12 he undertook a journey to Syria, with his uncle Abu Talib, who was engaged in the caravan trade. In Busra (Syria) he had an encounter with a monk named Buhayra, who was able to recognize in him certain signs that made him think that he was in front of the Prophet announced by the scriptures, so fearing for the younger man’s life, he warned his uncle Talib not to follow his ca ca towards Damascus, so that the Jews could not also gather what he had seen and think about damaging it.
When he was old enough to embark on the caravan trade, his uncle Talib, who did not have sufficient capital, advised him to be employed under the orders of Jadiya, a widow with great economic power, whom Muhammad married a few months later , in 595 A.D. She would be the first person to accept the new religion.
At 38, Muhammad meditated days and weeks in a cave on Hira Mountain. The Muslims believe that it was there, where in 610 AD, Yibril (Archangel Gabriel) gave Muhammad the first aayahs of the Koran. For 23 years, Muhammad received such revelations, proclaiming the existence of a single god, which were recorded by his secretaries, in scraps of camel-skinned leather, in order to preserve them as faithfully as possible. Muhammad entrusted his experience only to his closest friends, who converted Islam, whose name means “delivery and submission to God”.
The initial spread of the new faith was very cautious, having only 30 followers in its first 3 years. Upon becoming public, the number of followers spread rapidly, causing concern in the heads of the tribes, whose livelihood depended on the trade generated by the pilgrimages to the temple La Kaaba, where tribute was paid to the various deities, against Muhammad was fighting. 619 A.D. marked the beginning of the Quraysh’s persecution and repudiation of Islam. It is known as “the year of sadness”, to coincide with the death of Jadiya and his uncle Abu Talib.
In the midst of the great tension and in the face of several attacks, Muhammad moved, in 622 AD, to Yazrib (present-day Medina). This migration is known as The Hegira, and marks the beginning of the Islamic year, whose dates are accompanied by the particle “AH” (year of the Heriga). In Medina, Muhammad served as a mediator, achieving a cessation of bloodshed among Arab peoples who follow Islam.
However, the acceptance wasn´t the same in Jewish communities, who accused him of misinterpreting the scriptures. Some historians believe that this is why prayer stopped heading for Jerusalem, and began to be conducted in the direction of Mecca.
Having established himself as a political and religious leader, around 623 AD, Muhammad proclaimed “The Constitution of Medina”, a set of legal terms under which other religions could live within the Islamic State, allowing the existence of Christians Jews, as long as they paid a tribute, luck not shared by pagan religions.
Relations between the regions of Mecca and Medina became increasingly problematic as a result of the assaults on the caravans of Mecca by the Muslims of Medina. In 624 AD, a confrontation ensued, where Muslims were victorious despite being three times less than their enemies, a fact that served Muhammad to finish consolidating as a political and military authority.
During the last years of his life, Muhammad could see Islam spread throughout the territory, causing Semitic peoples to face each other, to begin to unify under the same belief, becoming a great people. At the end of 11th year of the Heriga (632 AD) Muhammad died. He is considered one of the most influential men in history, having founded one of the three great religions of the world, practiced by more than one hundred hundred million people.
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August 14, 2019