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Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1659). Lawyer, political and military leader of British origin, recognized for being the main leader of the English Civil War, as well as the propellant of the Republic, who managed to expel for a time the monarchy of England.
He defeated King Charles I and was the agency of the process that concluded with the execution of the monarch in 1649. He also held the title of Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, which he assumed as opposed to the title of king.
Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599, in Huntingdon, England. He was the second of ten children between Rober Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward, a marriage with numerous properties. He studied first at Huntingdon, where he was formed by a strict Puritan named Thomas Bread.
He continued his studies at Sidney Sussex College, and later at the University of Cambrige, where he graduated in Law. In 1620 he married Elizabeth Bourchier and returned to his hometown to assume his role as a father. From 1628 until 1629, he served as a representative for his city in Parliament, demonstrating great opposition to the Catholic religion, in favor of Puritanism.
Parliaments and beginnings in the Army
In 1640, he participated in the short and long Parliament, convened by Charles I in order to request the necessary funds to confront the Scots. However, along with Cromwell there were other Puritans who made up the majority, who strongly opposed Charles I, leaving him without support.
Likewise, the aristocracy was in decline, as was the Catholic Church. In 1641, the Triennial Act was enacted, which began to erect Parliament as a strong power before the monarchy. In 1642, Parliament began to have control over the Navy and the Army.
In August of that year, the situation was unsustainable, leading to the Civil War between the “round heads” of Parliament (mostly Puritan) and the monarchists, called Knights, made up of Anglicans and Catholics.
During the War, Cromwell was in charge of recruiting and leading a Cavalry regiment, which would serve Parliament. However they were defeated at Edge. Cromwell then decided to form an Elite Cavalry, managing to defeat the monarchical troops several times.
In 1644, having been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, he triumphed with his troops at the Battle of Marstoon Moor. A year later, he was appointed to reorganize the Army, an order he executed inspired by the Ironsides model, by which his troops were later known.
On 14 June 1645 he actively participated in the battle that ended up defeating the monarchical troops. The monarchy had been suppressed from England, power was assumed by Parliament, which was responsible for eliminating the numerous opposition factions.
However, in 1648, the king managed to flee Scotland and with his troops marched on England. The war began again. Cromwell returned to the match, managing to stop an uprising in Wales, and defeated the Scots in Preston. He forced Parliament to suspend talks with Charles I, and ended up expelling the monarchists from Parliament.
On 30 January 1649, Cromwell succeeded in having King Charles I prosecuted and executed. The Republic was established, under Cromwell’s command. The State Council was in charge of foreign policy, while Parliament assumed the legislative role. The Army assumed a duty to defend both.
His regime was characterized by strict power, censorship was imposed on the press, devoted himself to prosecuting and subduing members of the nobility, as well as gaining control over Ireland and Scotland, which led between 1650 and 1653 to heavy persecutions and killings.
In 1653 the Settlements Act was enacted, which decreed the expulsion of Irish Catholics, who were deported to Connaugth. The Pre-Bisteririans were defeated when they tried to restore Stuart’s house.
On 21 April 1653, Cromwell forcibly disbanded the Rabadilla Parliament, which had become inefficient, replacing it with the Parliament of the Saints, made up entirely of Puritans, which initiated a series of educational and social reforms, and which initiated a series of educational and social reforms, and which initiated a series of educational and social reforms, and which it was also dissolved by Cromwell on 12 December 1655, on the same argument as the first.
Protectorate and final years
The new Constitution created a form of government called the Protectorate, which was a middle ground between the parliamentary system and the monarchical system. Cromwell was appointed as Lord Protector of England, Ireland and Scotland.
It would share power with a 21-member State Council, who would be subject to their mandates. Thus, although he rejected the crown, so as not to win the enmity of his troops, Cromwell assumed the powers of a king. His new regime was entirely puritanical, gambling was banned, and entertainment venues such as cabaret or theatre were shut down.
His rule resulted in political and religious stability, offering a tolerant territory for any puritanical sect and other religions, except catholic, allowing even in 1655, the return of the Jews, who had been expelled from England in 1290. His Army and Navy were famous and feared throughout Europe. Cromwell died in London, England on 3 September 1658.
Power was immediately assumed by Richard Cromwell, his son, who two years later was removed, when Charles II marched over England, taking over the command again and establishing the Monarchy. Cromwell’s body was exhumed from his rest at Westminster Abbey, publicly hanged in revenge for the death of Charles I, at the time when the Republicans were persecuted and punished.
July 28, 2019
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