Rosa Luxembourg (March 5, 1871 – January 15, 1919).
Also known as the German Red Rose, she was a Marxist Intellectual, Political Theoretical and Militant, of Polish origin and Jewish ancestry, who dedicated her life to the struggle to achieve her ideals. Convinced that World War I was a confrontation between imperialists, she held a pacifist speech, in which she called on the proletarian to oppose the conflict.
She was also one of the co-founders of the Spartan Ligua, from which the German Communist Party evolved. She combined her militancy with the writing of valuable essays and books, where she reflected her ideas and reflections on what were the real steps that would lead to the construction of Socialism in Poland.
She also participated in the Berlin Revolution in 1919, a fact for which she was arrested and executed. Today it is also regarded by left-wing social movements as a feminist symbol of struggle.
Rosa Luxembourg was born on March 5, 1871, in the city of Zamoa (Poland) when it was under the power of the Russian Empire, thus becoming the youngest of five children between her father Eliasz Luxembourg and her mother Line Luwenstein.
From her birth, Rosa Luxembourg had to face great struggles, born with a condition that affected the growth of one of her legs, causing her a motor disability, which limited her normal displacement, due to a permanent limp. When she was a little over nine years old, her family moved to Warsaw.
In 1880, Rosa Luxembourg began her education, for which she entered the women’s high school. At the age of fifteen, in 1886, she joined the Proletariat, a Polish leftist party. A year later, she finished high school with very good grades.
Beginnings as a militant
In 1889, Rosa de Luxembourg had to flee to Switzerland, after the leaders of the Proletariat were arrested, after the illegality of this organization was decreed. In Switzerland, he entered the University of Zurich, where she studied simultaneously the careers of History, Philosophy, Economics, Politics and Mathematics.
In 1893, together with Leo Jogiches and Julian Marchlewski they founded the sprawa Roobotnicza newspaper. Despite being far from her native Poland, Rosa de Luxembourg used this printed medium to oppose nationalist ideas, put forward by the Polish Socialist Party.
In his view, the construction of socialism in Poland depended directly on the triumph of the revolution in Germany, Russia and Austria, so opposition to capitalism was even more important than the struggle for independence, for only socialism would independent of Poland.
At this time, she was also an active part of the founding of the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland (SDKP) which would later evolve into the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania.
Life in Germany
In 1895, she married the German, Gustav Lubeck. The couple moved to Germany, settling in Berlin. As a result of their marriage, Rosa Luxembourg assumed German nationality. During her life in this country, where she would spend the rest of her life, she participated in the German Social Democratic Party.
Her verb and her great theoretical capacity quickly made her one of the spokespersons of this organization. From 1900, Rosa Luxembourg combined her militancy with the writing of essays and articles, in which she analysed the socio-economic problems, which she published in various European newspapers. Between 1904 and 1906 her political position led her on three occasions to be under arrest.
In 1907, she traveled to London, where she was part of the Fifth Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party and held a meeting with Vladimir Lenin, who had not yet managed to establish Communism in Russia.
By 1912, in the face of the political crisis announcing the advent of a major war, Rosa Luxembourg, together with other intellectuals, were bringing together the union of all European workers, regardless of their nationality, so that they could unite against war, in order to avoid a confrontation, which according to thinkers like her, was a war between imperialists, for capitalist reasons, where they would subject hunger, misery and death to the proletarian people.
In this sense, Rosa de Luxembourg posed the theory that class consciousness should be above any nationalism. Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, on 28 June 1914, in her pacifist task, Rosa de Luxembourg devoted herself to convening several demonstrations, invoking conscientious objection, so that the workers wouldn´t join the military service. This activity again caused his arrest.
On July 29, 1914, World War I broke out. The following month, on August 4, the (Reichstag) German parliament supported the German Empire’s decision to go to war, even proposing its financing with war bonds.
Her fellow Social Democrats supported this decision. This dissibly disappointed Rosa of Luxembourg, who entered a deep depression. In an attempt to continue to convene proletarian power against the war, she founded on 5 August 1914, together with Clara Zetkin, Franz Mehring and Karl Liebknecht the Spartacist League, which would eventually become the Communist Party of Germany.
Also, on 15 January 1919, she participated in the Berlin Revolution, which concluded with the taking into custody of her participants, ending Rosa Luxembourg and her partner Karl Liebknecht in detention. Hours later, and after a terrible beating, they were both killed in cold blood. Her body was dumped in a river by her killers, being found a few days later.
Among his most major books, published in the Spanish language, are Reforma or Revolution (1900); Mass strike, party and trade union, published (1906); The Accumulation of Capital (1913) and The Russian Revolution (1918). Currently, on the second Sunday of January, is celebrated the day of Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht, in honor of these two militants, who are for the left-wing militants symbol of struggle and resistance.
Image source: biografiasyvidas.com
August 14, 2019