In 1499, Alonso de Ojeda, Juan de la Cosa and Américo Vespucio, who accompanied Christopher Columbus, were the first Spaniards recognized in history, who arrived in Colombian lands, first touring the Venezuelan territory and later, enter through the Guajira. This was the first stage of Colombia, the conquest of that northern part of the coasts.
Two years later, Juan de la Cosa, along with Rodrigo de Bastidas, penetrated the bay of Cartagena and the mouths of the Magdalena River. Nine years later, Vasco Núñez de Balboa invaded the Atrato River and areas surrounding the Sierra Damian.
Ten years later, that is, in 1522, the invader of Peru, Pascual de Andagoya, arrived in Colombia via the Pacific to the San Juan River. More than 20 years had to pass, for the Spaniards to get to know the territory of the Colombian coast.
At first, they called Colombia “El Dorado”, for a legend that spoke of a golden city, where there were also abundant riches and treasures. Then, believing this, they continued to colonize inland central to find the famous golden city, etc.
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, across the Magadalena River, toured large stretches in a rather complex expedition, accompanied by 200 men, with 60 horses. Many died on the way. It is assured that Jiménez de Quesada, was “the true conqueror of Colombia”.
Quesada came to Bocatá, the name of the one that became ‘Bogotá’, in the interior of Colombia, where there were countless precious stones. Afterwards, the Spaniards changed their indigenous name to the region as “Santa Fe”, the capital of the “New Kingdom of Granada”. These conquerors came under the orders of Queen Elizabeth the Catholic.
In that territory near Bocatá, they engaged in bloody battles in which all the indigenous people in command of the Zipa were brutally murdered. All this happened in the year 1537. After the massacre, they continued further inland from the “New Kingdom of Granada”, reaching Muiscas territories, where they continued to extract all the unimaginable riches and treasures, in Sogamoso, where the main indigenous peopleof the country were.
The entire central area of Boyacá, was the epicenter of the indigenous ancestors who populated the Americas before being conquered by the Spanish. There lived The Cacique Tundama, Maquetá, Guatavita and many other powerful. But anyway, they were massacred and their lands stolen, along with their valuable properties.
In this new stage, in which the center of the country was almost completely dominated, another renowned Spaniard appears, Don Francisco César, who mobilized by San Sebastián de Urabá and the Sierra de Abibe. All that southern part of the country was his mission to conquer it, along with Juan de Vadillo, who led the massacres in Cauca, in Cali and all that region, where the commissioner of Belalcázar and Jorge Robledo was also located.
On the other hand, in 1542, Hernán Pérez de Quesada, the brother of Gonzalo, crossing Boyacá, came to the lands of Casanareñas, and then continued to the valley of Sibundoy and Pasto. Francisco Orellana was responsible for the Amazon area.
Almost all of the national territory was completely conquered and annihilated. Spanish cities had been founded in the main indigenous points such as Santa Marta, Cartagena de Indias, Cali, Popayán, Bogotá, Pasto, Tunja, Pamplona, Ibagué, Barranquilla, Manizales, Medellín, Socorro, etc. By provinces the country was divided and in audiences.
The Audiencia de Santa Fe was based in the cities of Popayán, Santa Marta and Cartagena. Jan l. 1550, in Santa Fe the first Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were founded. The cathedrals were erected on top of the indigenous temples, such as Tunja, Cartagena, Duitama, among others. At the front they located the royal government house.
Apart from being robbed and massacred, the survivors were subjected to the customs and social system implemented by the Spanish. And if that were not enough, they were forced to pay unusual and tremendous taxes, which the heardider Angulo helped to decrease.
It was when King Philip II felt his authority threatened, when the famous hearings were suppressed and the presidency of the republic was created. Each president ruled for seven years, but then the hearings returned and vice versa.
In 1596, the presidency was left to one of the bloodiest Spaniards in history, who by nickname was named “doctor blood”, Don Francisco Sande. On the Colombian coast, as in Cartagena, many European pirates from France and England also arrived, such as Drake in 1586.
During all stages, the blood shed is countless and the riches that were carried, incalculable. Sogamoso, for example, had a temple entirely made of gold and was sloping. They took him all away. The current forms of government are the waste and the evolution of the Spanish policy of those times.
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June 30, 2019