What were the causes of Dadaism

The Dadaist Movement originated with the aim of transcending and eliminating the established foundations of design and art, declaring itself an anti-ethical, anti-artistic and anti-literary movement, opting for a random spontaneity that they wanted to contradict the idea of eternal beauty or absolute perfection.


A very peculiar ideological movement

The pioneers in this art class were Tristan Tzara, Hugo Ball, Marcel Janco and Jean Arp, who at Cabaret Voltaire where spectators were intended to provoke, formed the Dadaist Movement in Zurich in 1916, at the height of World War I.

Because Switzerland has always been neutral in world conflicts, all kinds of artists arrive there, especially at the time where they were fleeing and that was the ideal place to take refuge.

All the movements that arose at the beginning of the twentieth century were characterized by their manifestos. In Dadaism, it was Tzara who made them in 1918 and 1920. “The magic of a word ‘DAD’, which has put journalists at the door in an unforeseen way, is of no importance to us”; thus was the introduction of Tzara’s first manifesto, reflecting the position of Dadaism.

The causes of this revolutionary artistic movement, was the search to suppress the basic principles established in art, so that they began to use various materials such as cans, bottles, wood, cartons, among others and formed them according to what they called “casuality.”

The Dadaist then invaded New York, Germany and Paris. Because he was unable to follow a logical line and within normal parameters, in Berlin he died in 1920 and three years later, also in Paris.

Although most historians bestow all the credits of the movement on Tristan Tzara, there are others who regard Hugo Ball as the true author of this movement protests against pre-established aesthetic canons.

The idea was to overthrow all logic in art, alluding to total freedom, to spontaneous creativity, to chance, to the abstract and meaningless and of course, to contradiction.

Of the famous artists of Dadaism was Duchamp. One of his main works was ‘The Fountain’. So was Man Ray, with his work titled ‘The Architecture of Your Bones”. We could not leave out the German painter Kurt Schwitters, who made exclusive collages in which the material became the protagonist of the work. Richard H.lsenbeck and Hans Richter were other important exponents of the same current.

Today, the influence of Dadaism still stands, when it comes time to question what real art is and which works should be classified as artistic. More than ever, today Dadaism seems to come back to life with a preference for the abstract, psychedelic and out of common sense.

They say the name Dadaism was used for the first time by Tristan in wanting to baptize his movement. Then he opened a dictionary and searched for the first word that seemed most absurd to him. Exactly he found the French word ‘dada’ which translates into Spanish: wooden horse.

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phoneia.com (June 30, 2019). What were the causes of Dadaism. Bogotá: E-Cultura Group. Recovered from https://phoneia.com/en/education/what-were-the-causes-of-dadaism/