Yuri Vladimirovich Andrópov (Nagutskaia, Caucasus, between 2 and 15 June 1914 – Moscow, Soviet Union, 9 February 1984).
Political leader, who became the top leader of the USSR, for fifteen months, between 1983 and 1984.
Similarly, before he came to this place of power, Yuri Andrópov held important political positions, among which he was director of the KGB, A Russian intelligence service, of which he served for fifteen years, from 1967 to 1982, leading a series of measures to safeguard the security and permanence of the Soviet Union, in the face of political and territorial threats.
Yuri Andrópov was born between 2 and 15 June 1914, in the small village of Nagutskaia, Caucasus, to the marriage of Vladimir Konstantinovich Andrópov and his wife Yevgeny Karlovna Fleckenstein.
His father served as a railway official, while his mother was a music teacher. He graduated from high school in 1931, after which he held several jobs, occupying in parallel the position of telegraphist and projectionist in several cinemas.
In 1932, he entered the Technical College of Water Transport, located in the city of Raninsk. After four years of study, he managed to graduate. From then on he got a job at the local shipyards. The 1930s also marked the beginning of his political life.
During these years, Andromopov became one of the most active members of the PCUS youth organization, the Komsomol. On the personal side, the 1930s would also involve big changes. In 1935, Yuri Andrópov married Nina Ivanovna Yengálycheva, with whom he would have two children (Yevgeny and Vladimir). However, this couple’s relationship lasted shortly, without even surviving until the next decade.
When 1939, at the age of twenty-five, Andromopov formally joined the Communist Party. After the end of the Winter War and the creation of the Carelo-Finesa Soviet Socialist Republic, Andrópov was appointed Head of the Komsomol of the new nation.
Beginning in the 1940s, Andropov married for the second time, marrying Tatyana Filípovna Lébedeva, with whom he would also have two children (Igor and Irina) and who would survive him as a widow. As for his political career, the 1940s also marked growth.
During World War II, he became commander of the partizan guerrillas of the northern region, under the Nazi occupation. In 1944 he left Komsomol to work directly with the Communist Party. His loyalty was rewarded, in 1947, when he was appointed Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Carelo-Finesa Socialist Republic.
At this time he was also awarded several accolades for his performance during the war, receiving a Medal for the Partisan in the Great Patriotic War of First Class and two Orders of the Red Flag of Labor.
The 1950s would mark a new stage. In 1951, at the request of the Central Committee, he moved to Moscow, in order to assume the post of inspector, having as its mission to observe the work done by the party organizations of the Baltic Republics.
From that moment on, Yuri Andrópov held several positions and political positions, including: Director of the Fourth European Department (Poland and Czechoslovakia) of the UsSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1953); Adviser to the Soviet Embassy in Hungary; Ambassador of Hungary (July, 1954 – March, 1957); Director of the Department of Relations with the Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Socialist Countries (1957); Full Member of the Central Committee of PCUS (1961); Member of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the PCUS (1962); Head of the KGB (1967); Full Member of Politburo Law (1973).
USSR’s top leader
After fighting political dissent by all means, pointing to the struggle for human rights as an imperialist campaign against the USSR, implementing the use of repressive psychiatry, persecuting various intellectuals and even pointing to Pope John Paul II, a national of Krakow, a communist country, as the link of an international conspiratorial chain against the Soviet Union, on 12 November 1982, two days after the death of Leonid Brézhnev, Yuri Andrópov left his post as director of the KGB to take over as the Secretary General of the Communist Party, becoming the highest leader of the Soviet Union, an appointment that held the international community uneasy for a time that was completely unaware of the identity of this new representative.
Main contributions and final years
His tenure was characterized by improving the economy without abandoning socialist principles. For this he closely monitored efficiency, decentralized and improved productivity, while forming agricultural brigades. In one year it managed to grow industrial production by 5% while agricultural production increased by 7%.
He also made major reforms within the Party, punishing the violation of discipline within him, as well as corruption and abuse of power. It also replaced older leaders with a new generation of young people. As for its foreign policy, the USSR continued the war in Afghanistan, at the time when there was a process of deteriorating relations between the Soviet Union and the United States, in fact it was during his tenure that Ronald Reagan called the USSR a “empire of evil”.
However, in 1983, Andrhpov announced an end to the construction of special weapons, even though Cold War tensions between the two powers continued, beyond his mandate. Finally, after a serious convalescence where he was due to be dialysed, Yuri Andrópov died of a kidney failure on 9 February 1984, in Moscow, USSR.
His remains were buried in Red Square, next to the Kremlin walls. He was succeeded by Kostantín Chernenko.
Image source: news.com.au
August 14, 2019