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Emmy Noether is one of the most important and brilliant mathematical history. Today, their contributions are essential in the development of algebra and fundamental physics.

Considered by Albert Einstein and David Hilbert as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, Emmy Noether of Jewish origin had to deal all his life with a scientific society was not ready to see the inherent equality all people. Good for her womanhood, either because of their ethnicity and culture, ** this teacher was rejected several times as a teacher ** at the university until his eminent and impressive work was imposed on any prejudice. His contributions have been irreplaceable and of paramount importance to the world of mathematics and physics today. We can say without fear of contradiction, that without the contributions of Emmy Noether today science would not be what it is.

## The footprint of Emmy Noether

During his lifetime, Emmy Noether was able to lay the foundations of what we now know as abstract algebra, a subject that studies certain algebraic structures difficult to define but very necessary for the development of this discipline. The study of abstract algebra has revealed carefully ** logical statements in which all mathematics are based and natural sciences **, and is used today in virtually all branches of the discipline. Easier to understand, perhaps, be your contribution to theoretical physics, which granted the so-called Noether theorem. This occupies the central place in the results of physical and that explains Noether’s theorem is one of the most important ever tested in the development of modern physics

(or check ) than any symmetry from a physical system is subject to a conservation law.

To understand it, this theorem is an explanation of why there are conservation laws and physical quantities that do not change over the evolution of a physical system studied. It also allows concrete practical applications very important in the study and application of physics. Therefore, Noether’s theorem is regarded as “one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved among which guide the development of modern physics.” But besides these two important contributions, Emmy Noether ** is responsible for originating and build other important elements Ideas ** in the world of mathematics. As mentioned, algebra would never be the same thanks to Noether, and since I got down to work, the treatment of this discipline has changed profoundly.

Participated in the development of the theory of invariant algebraic proving the existence of an infinite base; Noether’s theorem allowed demonstrating that relativity by Einstein did not violate, somehow, the conservation laws. However, the * corpus * of his work resides in the theoretical foundations with which he worked: ascending and descending chain conditions, commutative rings, the theory of elimination or invariants of infinite groups. Furthermore, ** Candid contributions are famous ** for providing fundamental ideas to the development of complex theories provided by other scientists. Some examples are related to the topology of Alexandrov and Hopf. It was also important contribution to the world of hypercomplex numbers and, of course, the commutative algebra, among other subtle contributions.

## Noether, friendly against all odds

If something we can say is that it’s Emmy Noether an incredible example of perseverance and love for what he did. Mathematics, in his just 53 years not only deeply marked their mark on the history of mathematics and physics. Also did against all odds. ** His life was not easy and faced rejection repeatedly **. Even he was expelled from his native Germany for his Jewish ancestry. But his story, but he conditioned his contributions, he did in a positive sense. Born in Bavaria, daughter of a mathematician, his first intention was to teach foreign languages, but he changed his mind and ended devoted to mathematics. In its early years, because of her womanhood, was criticized and, to some extent, rejected by some of his peers.

For seven years he worked at the Mathematical Institute of Erlangen without charge absolutely nothing. But his brilliant mind did not go unnoticed. In 1915, Klein and Hilbert invited her to explain as its central idea, which would give body to “Noether theorem”, could apply to the recent theory of relativity Einstein. He started working then at the University of Göttingen, Department of Mathematics, although the philosophy faculty objected strongly, so ** had to “replace” Hilbert for four years in the classroom ** . But still, Emmy Noether continued to illuminate the minds of so-called “Noether boys” mathematicians who later would put their own name among the landmarks of Noether worked for 7 years without charge for their condition Woman

history of mathematics. In 1919, at last, was recognized as a professor at the university, where he continued until 1933.

With the advent of the Nazi party to power, recognition was tainted and was expelled, like many other Jews, important (and unimportant) positions of academia. Finally he fled to the United States, while retaining the recognition of the scientific community despite the vicissitudes of his life. Soon after, in 1935, had to be operated in an ovarian cyst, ** which did not recover ** despite good prognosis. Today his death still seems somewhat mysterious because of the speed with which it happened despite their good health. If something reminiscent of Emmy Noether, friendly and bright character is contributing classes and lectures he attended with subtle and clear ideas. Many who listened to claim he was able to inspire directly with their words. . A word that changed the course of mathematics for ever

March 23, 2015