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Alexander Fleming’s penicillin changed medical history and treatment of infectious diseases. This is what we have achieved with it.
I’ve always attracted attention for people who use computers connected to the Internet to load against science, usually when this contradicts some of the things without too much foundation on which believe; because I guess I do not think that this technology has been achieved otherwise than by applying the scientific method and, as you can see, it works. Likewise, if they are wise, they will go to the doctor to diagnose them and prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection and remove any suffering, as well as equipment installed in your antivirus, another fruit of scientific experimentation, so they would not go to hell. And if the computers have revolutionized the field of human communication, storage and analysis of data, as penicillin revolutionized medical fighting bacterial infections . It’s what I want to explain here.
The discovery recruit 606
The German physician Robert Koch enunciated the principles of the theory of microbial diseases in 1882 , being in the same study garlic other leading scientists as the chemist Louis Pasteur, and later, the doctor also Paul Ehrlich , co-Koch, described the chemicals can act against germs selectively : “We must learn to shoot microbes with magic bullets,” he said, and synthesized in 1901 salvarsan effective against syphilis, and conservatives of the time, among other things, harassed him, pointing as” a pawn of the devil “to prevent” the just punishment for sin promiscuity “with this compound, which in principle is called numerically, the 606, and as the work of Ehrlich influenced Alexander Fleming , this was reached caricaturizarle as” the recruit 606 “.
Penicillin just dozens of fearsome bacteria with little toxicity for patients
The Scottish scientist, biologist and chemist, had begun the search for bactericides and was studying at 1928 a crop of staphylococci in the basement of his messy laboratory at St. Mary’s Hospital in London, and when he returned after a holiday, noticed casually that strains were contaminated with a fungus around which all staphylococci were destroyed : it was Penicillium notatum, with respect to which the Irish physician John Tyndall was verified in 1876, without further, that some bacteria were struggling to thrive when the mold of spoiled food was present <. / p>
Fleming began cultivating this fungus, producing an antibacterial substance penicillin , which could kill dozens of fearsome bacteria with little toxicity for patients. But, for various reasons, such as difficulty in mass producing the substance, the blindness of the scientific community regarding their actual applications and even the timid nature of the Scotchman was not aggressive in exposing its discovery, the importance and development Penicillin had to wait until two biochemical, English Edward Abraham and German Ernst Chain , revealed the structure of penicillin, the purified 1939 They found a way to mass-produce as an idea of his colleague Norman Heatley in 1941.
Alexander Fleming foresaw the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics by irresponsible self-medication
Later, when penicillin was fully integrated in the pharmaceutical industry, 606 recruits issued a prediction for the speech he gave to collect the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work in 1945: “There is a danger that an ignorant man may easily apply an insufficient dose of antibiotic and by exposing the microbes to non-lethal amount of medication, makes them resilient.” And right he was then, today, when infections have been defeated by the penicillins, is which is making us lose ground in the fight against them
Applications of penicillin
Several ancient cultures realized that by applying some plants and molds, hot and even pieces of land bread flourished in the wounds, they could reduce infections. But of course, no scientific accuracy, these methods were clearly insufficient, and hence celebrate the work of people like Alexander Fleming: the first penicillin-based drug distributed by the pharmaceutical industry was very effective in treating ye even prevention of syphilis , which cornered the salvarsan Ehrlich, meningitis, tetanus, gonorrhea, child sepsis, pneumonia and gangrene, plus most of the infections causing wounds , and indeed, in 1944 much penicillin was produced to treat all Western wounded in the battles of World War II . And I must say that this substance is also in veterinary application :. Dogs, cats, rabbits, birds, hedgehogs, ferrets, turtles and snakes, for example, can be treated with it
In the seventies came the synthetic penicillins , which allow a greater number of formulas and today, the main antibiotics Primary remain penicillins as cloxacillin or amoxicillin, although we have the alternative of cephalosporins, whose principle is identical but originates from a different fungus, are more stable and have a range of action of greater amplitude. Other synthetic antibiotics are tetracyclines, quinolones and some more, but generally are not as effective as the previous ones and cause more side effects.
In 1900, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases ; at present, thanks to penicillin, none of them is
Along with vaccinations, the great improvement in hygiene and other advances, the development of penicillin is the responsible for the dramatic increase in life expectancy of the population in the West, which is href=”http://www.who.int/global_health_histories/seminars/presentation07.pdf” kept below fifty, with a global average of thirty-one, not least because, if in 1900 the three leading causes of death in countries were infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and diarrhea and gastroenteritis in the present none of them is. No wonder the implementation of penicillin is considered by many scientists the most important achievement of medicine in the last century , and all thanks to the scientific efforts of people like the shy Alexander Fleming, the recruit 606.
December 2, 2015