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The ABS system is an essential element in all modern cars. We show how they work and how to help the braking of a car.
If you follow motor racing as Formula 1, you have seen repeatedly how pilots block any of the wheels of the car-usually one of the front- to reach an intense braking train, creating a plane in the air and a stream of white smoke instantly. That moment is, for many, surprising, then Not used to see wheel locks in our day to day . And it is that all modern cars (from the 90s onwards) mounted an electronic system that handles only and exclusively to avoid that situation. That system, as many of you already know, is the ABS system ( anti-lock braking system in English).
The ABS system is one of the standardized safety measures modern cars. Responsible for avoid blocking any of the wheels of the car during braking , allowing better handling car. And it is that, if one or more wheels lock, the car is instantly uncontrollable matter how we turn the steering wheel. The car will be limited to keep the momentum and keep us avoid any present obstacle in the way. In the next picture we can see it clearer:
To avoid that lock and maintain car control on the steering wheel, in the 70s and 80s began to implement the system ABS in some cars. At first mechanical systems were primitive, but over time and became more effective electronic
The ABS system has essentially three parts.
rotation sensors. are placed on wheels (usually by the braking system). Measure at all times the movement of the tire and send the data to the control unit.
Switchboard control. The control unit receives all data from sensors on the wheels and interpreted. When it detects that a tire rotates at a speed lower than the rest by (rotates with less speed) minute, assumed it is locked or is about to undergo blocking. Just then sends a signal to the solenoid to undo the lock involved or avoid it.
Solenoid. They are located on the brake ducts. When the control unit activates, open and absorb some of the brake fluid, reducing the pressure that the liquid in the main conduit transmitted to the brake calipers and, in parallel, reducing the intensity with which the wheel is slowing . Thus revolutions per minute of the balance wheel with the rest and the lock is avoided, allowing the driver to brake the car without losing steering control.
ABS braking system simplifies and driving, but increases the times and stopping distances
The differences between ABS braking system and do without it are remarkable especially when we have to dodge an obstacle guard located on the road. With the ABS system, just we have to limit ourselves to step on the brake pedal to the maximum and turn the steering wheel , which most drivers do instinctively. Instead, without ABS, have to brake sharply, release the brake pedal, turn and return to the brake pedal if it becomes necessary. A more complex and, above all, less instinctive that we should continue with the ABS system activated process.
However, the ABS system is not perfect. Its use has a number of disadvantages that in certain situations they try to avoid at all costs. The largest of these is undoubtedly the increased stopping distances . And the control unit reduces the intensity many times those susceptible braking wheels to lock, also reducing the total braking module car and increasing, therefore, the braking distance and the time required for producing the total arrest car. It is for this reason that in competitions like Formula 1 (where the main thing is the speed) is forbidden to use.