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Elizabeth I of England (or Elizabeth I, in English] (Palace of Placentia, England, 7 September 1533 – Palace of Richmond, England, 24 March 1603). Also known as the Virgin Queen, she was a monarch and military and political leader of English origin, who reigned in England for forty-four years, from 17 November 1558 until the day of her death.
She is remembered for seeking england’s conversion to the Protestant faith. Equally within his reign there was a period of cultural flourishing. Her reign changed England socially, culturally, religiously and socio-economically, which is why she is considered one of the most influential monarchs in history.
Elizabeth I was born on 7 September 1533, at the Palace of Placentia, under the title princess of England, heir to the throne, being the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn. However, three years later, her mother was executed, on charges of adultery.
For her part, Elizabeth was declared an illegitimate daughter and was robbed of her title of heir escapism from the throne, being banished from the court, until in 1544, thanks to the intervention of Catherine Parr, one of Henry VIII’s many wives, regained her inheritance rights.
In this sense, he was in line, successor, behind his sister Maria Tudor and his brother, Prince Edward. After the death of King Henry VIII in 1547, his brother Edward VI ascended to the throne. His widow, Catherine Parr, married Thomas Seymour, taking Elizabeth with her.
This gave the princess the opportunity to receive a great education, also at that time he converted to Protestantism, by the influence of Catherine Parr.
Assumption to the throne
In 1553, Edward VI died suddenly. Against the Act of Succession signed in 1544, he appointed Lady Jane Grey as heir to the throne, which lasted only a few days as queen. Mary Tudor and Elizabeth I returned triumphantly to London, where with the support of the people they retook the power of the Tudor Dynasty. Mary ascended to the throne.
Without heeding the opinion of the royal house or his subjects, he married Philip of Spain, who would become Philip II. Such was the public rejection that in 1554 a popular rebellion almost ended with the ceremony. Fearful of being deposed and suced by Elizabeth, Maria Tudor ordered her to lock her up in the Tower of London and execute her, an order that was avoided by the English court. After a while she got freedom, although she did not stop being watched.
In 1558, Maria Tudor died, Elizabeth was crowned Queen of England on 15 January 1559, thus becoming the fifth and final member of the Tudor Dynasty to reach the English throne.
From the first moment he had to face the war that England maintained with Scotland and France. Despite personal and religious differences, she was forced to join forces with Philip II of Spain, managing to establish in 1559 the Treaty of Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.
That pampering year, Elizabeth I supported the Protestant leader John Knox to extend his religious revolution in Scotland. He also supported Luis Borbón in his religious war against Francisco de Guisa. Scotland won, breaking all ties between England and France, which supported Catholics.
A momentous theme of his entire reign was the matter of his marriage. Notwithstanding parliament’s insistence that she seek a husband to raise children, to succeed her in power, Elizabeth refused, expressing some rejection of the mere idea of sharing the throne with another.
Without children, his immediate heiresses were Mary Stuart, Margaret Tudor and Catherine Grey, although none of him liked it. Fear of a lack of a precise heir to the throne was aggravated when in 1562 he became seriously ill with chickenpox. However, after his recovery he insisted on his refusal to marry, which is why he was known historically as The Virgin Queen.
In 1568 he had to deal with the attacks philip II on the pirate ships of John Hawkins and Francis Drake, in the service of the English throne. In 1569 he sent an attack on the Indian fleet. That same year he faced the Northern Rebellion, in the hands of the Catholics, and the Desmond Rebellion in Ireland. She won the two uprisings, although the victory earned her excommunication in 1570.
In 1577 she was forced by the royal council to intervene in the struggle between Catholics and Protestants in the Netherlands, in order to support the latter, although in 1578 she withdrew it in order to avoid a confrontation with Spain.
However, in 1579 he again faced an Irish rebellion in Desmond that this time had the support of Philip II, yet the queen defeated the rebels in 1583. In 1586 the War against Spain and Philip II, who longed to be crowned King of England, was inevitable. In 1587, Francis Drake marched against Cadiz.
Victory that was reinforced with the brilliant performance of the Invincible Navy in 1588. England ended at that time any inmate invasion by Spain.
However, he was facing a major economic crisis. Despite this, in 1589, the Queen advanced against Portugal, aiming to end the remains of the Spanish fleet and lead to the overthrow of Philip II, wholly failing. The conflict with Spain lasted until 1603. During this war period, he also faced the Nine Years’ War against Ireland.
Finally, on 24 March 1603, Elizabeth I of England died of unknown causes at her Palace of Richmond, England. His body was buried in Westminster Abbey. It was supced by James I of Scotland. His death was mourned by hundreds of citizens.
Image source: biografiasyvidas.com
July 31, 2019