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The story of Oskar Schindler, who saved 1,200 Jews from the Holocaust, it is well known to all. But it was not alone. Meet the others.
One of the biggest genocides that are remembered in history is, of course, carried out against the Jews in the twentieth century by href=”http://hipertextual.com/archivo/2010/09/el-hombre-que-dijo-no-al-saludo-nazi/” after the Nazis his rise to power in Germany, and many of their supporters in countries occupied in World War II : The Holocaust , capitalized. But we can also find a decent people from the horror who risked death to save a few Jews could . One of these people immortalized target=”_blank”> Schindler’s List ( Schindler’s List , 1993), based on the book by Australian Thomas Keneally, Schindler’s Ark (1982). However, Oskar Schindler was not the only , and both he and many others want to speak on these lines.
What made Schindler
Born in a family of Sudeten Germans in Svitavy, which is now part of the Czech Republic, he was a member of the Nazi party and the Abwehr, the intelligence service, and entrepreneur who leased a factory glazed Krakow in 1939 by the council Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern, which was known since then as Emalia and for which employed hundreds of other Jews because it was cheaper , since his salary was set by the Nazis after occupying Poland . He ended up defending to the hilt, even in the secret police of Hitler, the Gestapo.
The filmmaker Steven Spielberg immortalized Schindler in his Oscar-winning 1993 film, based on a novel by Thomas Keneally
In 1940, a decree had brought Jews from the city and had relocated to the ghetto of the industrial district of Podgórze, where Emalia was, and since 1941, the Nazis began to carry the Most of its inhabitants to the Belzec extermination camp and massacred there; other hundreds were killed in the ghetto itself, whose atrocious spectacle was what Schindler decided to maneuver in favor of the Jews , or selected to work in the concentration camp of Plaszow, built in 1943 and governed by Amon Goeth, a captain of the Schutzstaffel, or SS so perverse that he enjoyed shooting prisoners at random to whom Schindler’s wife, Emile, considered the most despicable man he had known in his life.
The same Göth intended that all factories of the district moved into Plaszow, Schindler got idea remove the head diplomatically what was concerned to Emalia, adulándole and even coming to bribery; and up he managed to build an small camp next to the factory, where he built a hospital, a kitchen and a dining , to house employees and hundreds of Jews in better conditions and except brutality Goth, which eventually arrested for corruption and abuse of power in September 1944 but without conviction, and then hanged for his crimes in the same month of 1946.
At first, Schindler hired 1,000 Jews in his factory for economic reasons, but ended up defending to the hilt of the Nazis
Before that, besides being arrested Schindler himself on a couple of occasions to give show affection to some Jews and another for trading on the black market and spreads Göth and others to encourage their workers, the SS decided to close factories not intended for the war effort, as well as concentration camps to which I would get Stalin’s army. The former was warned Schindler by mietek pemper, the Jewish secretary of Goth, who suggested he changed the factory production by anti-tank grenades and helped make the famous Schindler’s List, which included 1,200 Jewish workers who ended saved after persuade Göth and other bigwigs in Berlin to move his factory to Brinnlitz, a village in his home district near the Sudeten Mountains in October 1944.
But there was an error and the train they were traveling over 300 of its employees in Auschwitz as another 700 of its workers saw them in the Gross-Rosen concentration camp for a week. Schindler, after he missed their usual contacts and bribes, sent to Auschwitz Hilde Albrecht, his secretary, with lots of black market items for women consented to depart from Brinnlitz way. There, given the wretched sustenance that the SS provided to each slave laborer, Schindler devoted almost full time to look for food, medical devices , weapons and other items in the same Brünntiz and Krakow.
I made Schindler with the support of his wife Emile deserved Keneally’s novel and Spielberg
She looked into a makeshift infirmary more 200 battered Jews who had arrived in the village after being thrown in the Polish mine Goleschau, on a train journey during which a dozen had died; and he continued to buy the Nazis to prevent their Jewish liquidated until the end of the war, and that 3,000 women were meant Auschwitz several textile industries of the Sudetenland. When the war ended, the employer had spent his entire fortune . There is no doubt that, for all he did Schindler with the invaluable support of his wife Emile, the novel deserved Keneally and Spielberg’s Oscar-winning film.
The diplomats who acted as Schindler
Despite that looked the other way for various reasons while Nazi barbarism against the Jews, who supported and even casting a hand in it untied, others had the courage to Oskar Schindler to help victims of the Holocaust . In this sense, stands above all the work of various diplomats from many nations, stationed in the countries that suffered the German occupation and they used their power and influence to save many Jews from the gas chambers and shooting.
The Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg who was probably saved more Jews from the Nazi Holocaust
Raoul Wallenberg was a Swedish diplomat who provided thousands of Hungarian Jews passports protected his country, bribed Nazi officials who are not fooled by these false documents rented buildings refugiarles, camouflaging as libraries or institutes of Swedish research and cooperated for deportations to German concentration camps were canceled . It had the cooperation of others, as the ambassador Per Anger . And if it is true the story that persuaded a Nazi general that desatendiera Hitler’s order to annihilate the inhabitants of the ghettos when they were about to get Soviets, who arrested him on suspicion of espionage and made him disappear, Wallenberg have saved the lives of some 100,000 Jews .
Other as he did the same in Budapest, as the Swiss consul Carl Lutz , which provided safe conduct to Palestine to thousands of Hungarian Jews or a diplomatic Polish Henryk Slawik , which gave 5,000 Jews budapenses your passport identification Catholic country, or the ambassador Angel Sanz-Briz , which provided Spanish passports to Sephardic Jews first and then to all those he could, so that, helped by Giorgio Perlasca , an Italian merchant who made everyone believe that it was Spanish consul protected 5,200 Hungarian Jews .
Meanwhile, the Romanian consul Constantin Karadja prevented 51,000 German Jews to be deported and exterminated. Colonel Salvadoran diplomatic and Jose Castellanos Contreras and businessman György Mandl gave false papers to 40,000 Jews from Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Romania that credited them as citizens of El Salvador. The secretary of the Spanish embassy Parisian Eduardo Propper and the Portuguese Consul Aristides de Sousa sealed and signed up 30,000 passports from Bordeaux to many French Jews They fled to Spain and Portugal, although this figure has been questioned. The Mexican consul Gilberto Bosques in Marseille saved the lives of 30,000 Jewish refugees and German your visa issuing for them, why he was arrested by the Gestapo. And the diplomat and leader of the Swedish Red Cross Folke Bernadotte got 27,000 people, many of them Jewish , were taken to hospitals in his country.
Diplomats from some 19 different nationalities helped tens of thousands of Jews escape death
The Chinese Consul Ho Feng Shan also issued visas to close 3,000 Austrian Jews , and the Japanese Consul Chiune Sugihara gave false passports without authorization 10,000 Lithuanian Jews and their families ; and as he and the others, many others followed suit: the Iranian diplomat Abdol-Hossein Sardari, the Turkish consul Necdet Kent and his fellow vice consul Namik Kemal Yolga and diplomat Selahattin Ülkümen, the Uruguayan consul Florencio Rivas, Brazilian Ambassador Luis Martins de Souza, Spanish diplomats Bernardo Rolland, John Schwartz, Jose Rojas, Julio Palencia, Miguel Angel Muguiro and Sebastian Romero, the Portuguese ambassador Carlos Sampaio, the senior US commissioner Paul V. McNutt and his fellow vice consul Hiram Bingham IV, Hugh O’Flaherty Irish Ambassador Delia Murphy and his collaborator, the British ambassador Jacob Benardout or German Ambassador Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz.
What did others like Schindler
Not only diplomats they distinguished themselves by their decency in these dark years, too many other people : the British secret agent Frank Foley gave passports and forged a 10,000 German Jews to march to Palestine and the United Kingdom; US journalist Varian Fry led a rescue organization that saved between 2,000 and 4,000 Jews , including André Breton, Marcel Duchamp, Hannah Arendt, Max Ophuls or Heinrich Mann; and Swiss police commissioner Paul Grüninger , who gave false documents to 3,600 Jews to escape from Austria
Irena Sendler. “Solo I did what I had to do, I should save more “
The Polish social worker Irena Sendler brought 2,500 children Ghetto Warsaw, of what she said: “I just did what I had to do; I should save more “; Czechoslovak lawyer Rudolf Štursa and the priest Jan Martin Vochoc produced baptismal certificates for 1,500 Jews ; Frank Plagge , the largest German Wehrmacht, used to a thousand Lithuanian Jews to save their lives; Brothers and members of the French resistance Gabrielle and Johan Hendrik Weidner rescued an 800 Jews ; British financial Nicholas Winton was 669 Jewish children from Prague to London in eight train trips, of which about 6,000 people today are descended; the greatest Sergeant Charles Coward , who brought 400 Jews Monowitz labor camp; and the commander of the Wehrmacht Anton Schmid , who was executed for helping run a 250 Jews and wrote to his wife the following words: “You know what it means that for my soft heart. I could not saty; I need help “
And not a few q class =>”. “. else is like them: for example, the Dutch entrepreneur Frits Philips, who did what Schindler and Plagge, the Dutch architect Jaap Penraat, Polish miller Jaap Penraat, the Belgian millionaire Suzanne Spaak and his countrymen Taquet-Marie Martens and Major Emile tappet Polish activist Wladyslaw Bartoszewski and Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, Japanese Lieutenant General Kiichiro Higuchi, the Polish emissary Jan Karski, the Bulgarian politician Dimitar Peshev; aristocrat Tunisian Khaled Abdul-Wahab, the nationalized British physiotherapist Albert Bedane, the Luxembourg Minister Victor Bodson, writer and Dutch activist Corrie ten Boom, Lithuanian stevedore Janis Lipke, Józef and Stefania Macugowscy the Polish, Finnish smuggler Algoth Niska, the Chilean French resistance Mary Edwards MacClure and Bertha and Eugen Marx Dutch, also of resistance.
The francoucraniano priest Alexandre Glasberg, the German Jesuit Alfred Delp, the Polish priest Maximilian Kolbe, the Hungarian nun Sara Salkahazi, Croatian Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac, the archbishop Ukrainian Andrey Sheptytsky and the priest Omelian Kovch ditto, deported to the Treblinka extermination camp to help the Jews.
Very few of these heroes, like Irena Sendler, Nicholas Winton, Chiune Sugihara or Charles Coward, have been honored in a movie like Oskar Schindler
The Austrian actress Dorothea Neff, Polish teenagers Stefania and Helena Podgorska Burzminski Podgorska and his compatriots Stanislaw and Irene Gut Opdyke Kielar, the German justice inspector Friedrich Kellner, the German nobleman Maria von Maltzan, the German jurist Hans von Dohnanyi, who hid Anne Frank and seven other Jews for two years in Amsterdam, Miep and Jan Gies, Bep Voskuijl, Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman; Wehrmacht officer Albert Battel, the German official Wilm Hosenfeld, who know from the movie The Pianist Roman Polanski , where we see him helping the musician Wladyslaw Szpilman; and yes, Helmuth von Moltke, director of the Third Reich, and businessman Albert Göring, younger brother of Nazi leader Hermann Goering.
Other 6,500 Polish men and women are added to this list, 700 They murdered by the Nazis when they discovered what they did. And even entire villages for the persecuted Jews fussed : the Romanian Cernauti, with Mayor Traian Popovici at the head, who protected Jews bucovinos 20,000; French Le Chambon-sur-Lignon dealt with between 3,000 and 5,000 Jews, under the direction of Pastor André Trocmé and his wife Magda; and also French Moissac, the Polish Markowa the Nieuwlande Tršice Dutch or Czech. Almost none of these people has its own movie, like Oskar Schindler, the homenajee ; only Irena Sendler, Nicholas Winton, Chiune Sugihara or Charles Coward. Serve this humble text, then, as a tribute .
November 28, 2015
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