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María Eva Duarte (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) ( Los Toldos, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina).
Historically known as Evita, she was an Argentine Social Fighter and Political Leader, who served as First Lady of Argentina during the first years of her husband Juan Domingo Perón’s term.
She distinguished himself by her close dialogue with the popular classes, as well as by her social work, at the Eva Perón Foundation, from where she devoted herself to the construction of schools, hospitals, hostels and canteens.
Likewise, her performance was vital for the inclusion of women in Argentine politics, an area in which she founded the Women’s Peronist Party, while propelled and managed, in 1947, the enactment of the Women’s Suffrage Act. She was followed by thousands of humble men and women, who she called her descamisados, then Evita is one of the most important political figures of Argentina of the twentieth century.
Eva Duarte was born on May 7, 1919, in Toldos, province of Buenos Aires, thus becoming the youngest of the five children of Juan Duarte’s extramarital union with Juana Ibarguren. Both she and her siblings on her mother’s side were illegitimate, yet they used the paternal surname, Duarte.
Her childhood and adolescence was shared between the villages of Los Toldos and Junín, which she left for good in 1935, when she fled her family field to Buenos Aires, in order to follow her vocation: acting.
Within three months of her arrival in the Argentine capital, she got her first job as an actress. In the following years it would build some fame in the genre of radio theater. By 1942, she was already director of a Radio Theatre Company. Likewise, her union struggle would make her take the presidency of the nascent Argentine Radial Association.
Two years later, on January 22, 1944, in the middle of an artistic festival, aimed at raising funds for the victims of the recent San Juan earthquake, she met Colonel Juan Domingo Perón, who was serving at that time as head of the National Department of I work, having participated in the military movement, responsible for the revolution that ended the 4 June 1943 of the conservative governments.
A few months later, Duarte and Perón begin a romantic relationship. From that moment on, Eva Duarte would become a fervent defender and broadcaster of the idea of Justice.
Likewise, his performance was crucial during the arrest of General Perón, who was removed from his office and confined to Isla Martín García, of the Río de la Plata. In order to secure the release of her companion, Eva visited important military and lawyers from Argentina.
In the face of the refusal of the powerful, Eva Duarte summoned the trade unions, which under the slogan “the colonel must be rescued” they undertake on 17 October 1946 a general strike, which leads to unprecedented concentration in the Plaza de Mayo, forcing the rulers to free Perón and take her to the audience, to calm the spirits.
Five days later, on October 22, Duarte and Perón marry, an act that is interpreted by historians as the consolidation of peronism’s political identity. From then on, the couple Perón-Duarte would dedicate their efforts to gathering forces, ahead of the elections of February 24, 1946.
First Lady of Argentina
Once the presidency is won, Eva Perón begins to consolidate her image as First Lady. That same year, she embarked on an international tour that took her to visit Spain, France, Switzerland and Italy, where she had the opportunity to meet with Pope Pius XII.
Likewise, in 1947, it got Parliament to enact the Women’s Suffrage Act. A few months later she was elected president of the Women’s Peronist Party.
It also inaugurates the Eva Perón Foundation, through which it is dedicated to the construction of schools of nurses, hospitals, homes and school canteens, personally supervising the operation of them and attending to those in need themselves.
By this time she was already known to the Argentinian people as Evita, and was an image of struggle and charity, and owner of a speech noted by some as incendiary and combative. Likewise, she was recognized for her arduous and long working hours, which are pointed out by some as the cause of the deterioration of her health.
By 1951, in the face of the new presidential election, she was urged by the people to run for vice president. However, faced with the already present symptoms of cancer that would end his life a few months later, Evita – who always refused to take up public office – publicly renounced this possibility. Still diagnosed, she struggled to stay active in her social struggle.
On June 4, 1952, she had his last public appearance, during the event in which Juan Domingo Perón assumed his second term. Finally, on July 26, 1952, she died in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a victim of uterine cancer. Her body was embalmed by Spanish doctor Pedro Ara, and placed in the headquarters of the General Confederation of Labour.
In 1955, after the blow to Perón, his remains are abducted and disappeared. Sixteen years later, on September 3, 1971, they were returned to General Perón in Madrid, Spain.
Image source: pjchaco.com.ar
August 14, 2019