Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879, Ulm, Germany – April 18, 1955, Princenton, United States). Scientist and Physicist of Jewish origin, who studied the photoelectric effect and developed the theory known as the Law of Relativity. His discoveries radically changed the conception of the universe and served the development of quantum mechanics, the physical basis of the atomic bomb. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
Albert Einstein biography
Many of his theories are applied in a practical way in everyday technologies such as remote control or optical laser readers. He is considered the most influential physicist of the twentieth century.
He attended primary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. At just 16 years old, he published his first scientific work, entitled Aether State Research in Magnetic Fields, in which he exposes the paradox among the different visions that an observer might have on a beam of light in motion, as it moved or is it’s going to be stationary.
Problem that would inhabit your thinking for years to come. Faced with the obligation to perform military service, he moved to Zurich, where he graduated at 17 years of secondary school, renounced nationality and enrolled at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School.
In class, she meets Mileva Maric, whom she would marry years later. This time would be marked by the difficulty of getting a job and the personal crisis with their parents, who rejected Mileva, because of their Serbian and Catholic origin.
In 1902, they had with her a girl, named Lieserl, whose fate is not known. Some historians point out that he died; others think it was given for adoption. In 1902, he finally obtained a position at the Berne Patent Office.
His father dies, not without first giving him his blessing to get married. Already on a parental income and authorization, Albert and Mileva are married on January 6, 1903. A year later, they bring Hans Albert into the world. In 1910, his second son, Eduard Einstein, was born.
The Year of the Miracle
The year 1905 is known for its biographers as “the year of the miracle”. He obtained a doctorate from the University of Zurich and published five papers that would change physics. The first, he proposes that light is made up of photons that individually behave like particles, but collectively like a wave, giving way to the development of quantum and the study of the photoelectric effect, which makes it worthy of the Nobel Prize in 1921.
The second proposed a new method of counting and studying the sizes of atoms and molecules, which together with the third study, on Brownian movement, would come to definitively demonstrate the existence of the atom, still discussed at that time. His fourth work develops his Law on Relativity, where he showed that time and space are not absolute, but depend on the speed with which the observer moves, setting the speed of light as a constant. The last document raised its equation E’mc2, which stated that mass and energy are equivalent.
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Max Planck, creator of quantum theory, paid attention to his great discoveries. Albert Einstein then began to be invited to teach professorships at prestigious universities in Zurich, Prague and Belín, where he was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Personally, their marriage was falling apart. In 1919 she divorced Mileva Maric. Later, he married Elsa Luwenthal, his cousin.
In 1916, he proposed that gravity is not a force, but a curved field, influenced by space-time, which is created thanks to the presence of mass. In 1919, astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington, who was studying a solar eclipse, managed to check it out. In 1920, he revolutionized science again when he proposed a dynamic universe, constantly expanding and contraction. In 1929, astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe was indeed expanding.
Travel to the United States
In 1931, the Nazi government passed a law that prevented Jews from teaching. He knew that his name was on a list of targets to be murdered and had to see the publication of a magazine, whose cover presented a photo of him accompanied by the phrase “he has not yet been hanged”. He left Germany forever. He settled in Princenton, USA, where he lived the rest of his days, developing his studies on the theory of the unified field, which sought to achieve the fusion between Quantum Theory and Relativity.
In 1939, he was one of the scientists who alerted President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the possibility that the Nazis were working on an atomic bomb. In 1940, he gained U.S. citizenship, although he was not on the list of scientists called to develop the atomic bomb. Declassified documents show that the FBI was wary of its ties to some pacifist and socialist movements. In 1945, he was one of those who raised a “world government”, comptroller of the use of nuclear energy. A great sympathizer of the pacifist and Zionist organizations, in 1952, he was offered the presidency of the State of Israel, which he rejected.
He gradually was oislocated from academia, perhaps because at that time most physicists were interested in quantum physics, while he wanted to continue studying Relativity. On April 17, 1955, he suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm. He was rushed to Pricenton University Medical Center, where he refused surgery, arguing that it was in very bad taste to artificially lengthen life. He died on April 18, 1955.
In 1999, time magazine declared him “the man of the century”. His brain is preserved at Princenton Medical Center, as a reminder of the man who forever changed the vision of the universe.
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July 14, 2019