In the field of universal history, the Peloponnese War is known as the War of the Peloponnese, which occurred between 431 BC and 404 BC between the League of Delos, whose visible head was Athens, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta , nation that won this military confrontation developed in mainland Greece, minor Asia and even Sicily, and which brought as main consequence the dissolution of the League of Delos.
Phases of the Peloponnesian War
Likewise, this conflict is listed as one of the most important in the ancient world. However, a study of their events requires being understood from their different stages. In this sense, by convention, Universal History assumes that there are three moments or phases of the Peloponnesian War, which are basically described as follows:
This first phase of the war occurred between 431 BC and 421 BC. It was characterized by the numerous invasions that Sparta propelled over Attica, while for its part, the head of the League of Delos, that is, Athens carried out continuous attacks on the shores of the Peloponnese, demonstrating its great naval capacity. This phase or stage of the Peloponnesian War concluded with the signing of the Peace of Nicians, which occurred in 421 BC.
Peace of Nicias
During this stage of the War, which lasted between 421 BC and 413 BC, several clashes took place in the Peloponnese between the two war leagues. During this period also took place, between 415 BC and 413 BC the Atheian expedition, which resulted in misfortune for the Atheian army, which was virtually destroyed by the Spartans, being subjected to slavery at least half of the soldiers of this force.
As a result of this false peace, as well as the failure of Athens in its expedition, the third and final stage of the Peloponnesian War was then held, which stretched between 413 BC and 404 BC, and in which Sparta skilfully managed to promote a series of of rebellions in the low states dominated by Athens, counting for this with the help of Persia and the various satraps who ruled over these regions of the Aegean Sea and Jonia.
Also, in 405 BC, Sparta dealt another heavy blow to the Athenisans, managing to destroy their fleet, during the Battle of the Egospostamos, which led directly to the defeat of Athens, as well as at the very end of this war, which lasted for 27 years.
Consequences of the War of the Peleped
Like any war between two or more countries, the Peloponnesian War also brought a number of consequences, at each and every level of the countries. In the case of this conflict, the following can be counted:
At the geopolitical level, the Peloponnesian War, and its outcome against Athens brought with it the dissolution of the League of Delos, which drastically changed the Greek map.
Thus, the defeat of Athens involved a change in power relations, since what had been the most important city in the region, was left at the mercy of the winners of this conflict.
On the other hand, the social and economic consequences were not expected either, since after years of war, Athens was rant, impoverished and subdued.
Similarly, Greece’s defeat did not lead to the advent of Peace, but was only the prelude to the numerous interneinal civil wars, which became the everyday of Greek society, fragmenting it.
Likewise, this war involved the loss of thousands of citizens, on both sides, as well as the end of entire cities, so it is also seen as a war of great social cost to the ancient world.
September 22, 2019