- and Sigma Xi Thomson Reuters announced its predictions about the 2015 Nobel Prizes.
- The microbiome, genome sequencing, the CRISPR or detection technique dark matter are some of the discoveries that could receive the Swedish award.
It is less than a week to learn the Nobel Prizes 2015 . On 5 October, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the award in the category of Physiology or Medicine. Later the institution announce the winners in the discipline of Physics (October 6) and Chemistry (October 7). On 9 and 12 October will be the turn of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize and Economy, respectively.
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The stakes for the awards this year have already begun. What are the predictions of experts on the 2015 Nobel Prizes? The predictions in the categories of science are closely contested, as published by the company Thomson Reuters and the association of scientific research Sigma Xi . These are your bets for the 2015 Nobel:
2015 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine
The microbiome it is one of the most interesting topics of recent times. Part of the “blame” for this scientific boom is Jeffrey I. Gordon , Director of Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology University of Washington, who managed to discover the complex relationship between humans and their gut microbiota, and how this affects our nutrition, obesity and overall health.
The study of the microbiome or sequencing the human genome could star the 2015 Nobel medical
Gordon is not the only bid for Thomson Reuters 2015 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine. The company also highlights the work of Kazutoshi Mori (Kyoto University) and Peter Walter (University of California), discoverers mechanism unfolded protein response ( Unfolded Protein Response , UPR in English). This particular system of “quality control” plays an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as sickness Alzheimer lateral sclerosis . sclerosis or Parkinson
The prediction of Thomson Reuters also notes a third bet: that of Alexander Y. Rudensky ( Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center ) Shimon Sakaguchi (Osaka University) and Ethan M. Shevach ( National Institutes of Health ). These three scientists have studied the role of T cells (a type of immune cells) in the development of allergies, autoimmune diseases or inflammatory processes.
The predictions of Sigma Xi for the Nobel in Physiology or Medicine 2015 still yet another direction. The feedback of this association suggest two candidates. On the one hand, the entity identifies as likely winners at J. Craig Venter (JCVI), Francis Collins (Director of the National Institutes of Health ) and Eric Lander ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology ) that could win the award this year for his work in sequencing the human genome.
On the other hand, the Sigma Xi association recognized one second candidateable the Nobel in Physiology or Medicine 2015: David J. Julius (University of California). This scientist has pioneered the molecular study of pain receptors and temperature, merit for which he could receive the award created by Alfred Nobel in his will.
Nobel 2015 Chemical
Last May, Emmanuelle Charpentier (director of Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology from October) and Jennifer Doudna (University of California) received the Princess of Asturias Award. Scientific had pioneered the development of the CRISPR-Cas9 technique more precise and effective than conventional genetic engineering genomic editing tool. For this work, Thomson Reuters believes could be recipients of the 2015 Nobel Chemistry, as happened in 1980 with Paul Berg .
The CRISPR-Cas9 genomic editing technique is one of the bets in chemistry The company also points to a second candidateable for the 2015 Nobel Chemistry: Carolyn R. Bertozzi (Stanford University). The researcher is a pioneer in the field of bio-orthogonal chemical , a discipline that complements the use markers and techniques used to visualize biological processes occurring within the cells or living beings. These tools allow us to observe biochemical reactions in living systems without altering, improving knowledge of cellular processes of non-pathological conditions or diseases such as cancer .
Meanwhile, Sigma Xi pointed out as potential winners to Harry Gray (Caltech), Stephen Lippard ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology ) and Richard Holm (Harvard University) for his work in the field of bioinorganic chemistry. His research has led to the creation of the first synthetic analogues of the iron-sulfur proteins or a better view of the role of zinc and nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter. The other option-less votada- of Sigma Xi is the Michael Grätzel ( Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne ), a pioneer in the development of solar cells.
2015 Nobel Physics
Thomson Reuters has proposed in this category three possible candidates. For one thing, Deborah S. Jin (University of Colorado Boulder) could be the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physics, after Marie Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer. This scientific managed to create the first fermionic condensate at ultralow temperatures, an advance that could be applied to quantum computing or superconductors future.
The detection of dark matter and extrasolar planets could help up to astrophysics a new, according to Thomson Reuters, Nobel Prize
The second application is to Paul B. Corkum (University of Ottawa) and Ferenc Krausz (Director of Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics ). These two researchers have been pioneers in the field of attofísica, a discipline that uses lasers to observe what happens in a trillionth of a second, and has allowed to follow the movement of electrons in atoms.
Zhong Lin Wang ( Georgia Institute of Technology ) is the third scientist in the pools of Thomson Reuters, thanks to the development of nanosystems that convert mechanical energy into electricity. One of its most striking results was the creation of a generator that transformed the movimiento human power by friction.
The predictions of Sigma Xi again distinguished from Thomson Reuters. American society as possible points awarded to Vera Rubin ( Carnegie Institution ) and Kent Ford ( Carnegie Institution ), which confirmed the existence of dark matter by using a powerful spectrograph.
The second bet Sigma Xi is the Geoffrey Marcy (University of California), Michel Mayor (University of Geneva) and Didier Queloz (University of Geneva) , who they managed to find the first planets beyond the solar system, a revolutionary discovery for Astrophysics.
2015 Nobel in Economics
2015 Nobel predictions Thomson Reuters also include the category of economy. In this case, the company aims to Sir Richard Blundell ( University College London ) as a possible prize for their microeconometric empirical studies that improve our understanding of the impact of policy decisions the labor market and demand. In particular, these investigations have to know how these decisions affect families in adverse economic conditions.
The Bank of Sweden in 1968 created the award to recognize studies in economics
In the pools of economy, Thomson Reuters also draws John A. List (University of Chicago), investigator extended field studies to economics, valuing work that has allowed for example, the subject’s behavior in natural conditions to see if they fit with the economic theory. To some extent, their studies can be compared with the “Heisenberg principle of economy”, as used to analyze subjects in natural settings and see if the experiment is consistent with economic theory, in order to determine if the subject’s behavior is not changed by mere observation.
The predictions of Thomson Reuters and Sigma Xi mark the kick off of the announcement of the Nobel 2015 Awards, some awards created by Alfred Nobel his will document that decided to donate his fortune to nine million dollars to the Foundation that bears his name. In less than a week we will know if these initial pools are confirmed.